Pharyngomycosis: symptoms and treatment


Pharyngomycosis (tonsillomycosis) is a pathology of the pharyngeal mucosa of an acute or chronic nature, the main cause of which is the infection of the body with fungi. Pharyngomycosis affects people from absolutely all age groups, including small children. It is rare when an illness occurs in an isolated form.

In most clinical situations, he is accompanied by other fungal lesions of the oral cavity. For example, stomatitis, glossitis or gingivitis.

Reasons

The main etiological factor of this disease is pathogenic fungi. Most often, the progression of pathology occurs due to the active activity of fungi from the genus Candida. In more rare cases, the body «attack» molds.

If a person is fully healthy, then in rare cases, he may progress to pharyngicemia. The central role in its development is played by acquired or congenital immunodeficiency states, as well as pathologies of the endocrine system. As a rule, the ailment progresses against the background of the following pathological conditions:


  • hyperthyroidism
  • diabetes;
  • HIV;
  • multiple ARI in the anamnesis;
  • obesity;
  • uncontrolled or prolonged use of antimicrobial synthetic medicines
  • after chemotherapy;
  • as a result of long-term use of glucocorticoids

Development Mechanism

Fungal pharyngitis, like many other ailments of infectious nature, begins to progress against the background of a decrease in general and local immunity. Pathogenic fungi, which are the main factor in the development of pathology, constantly live in the oral cavity of a healthy person, but at the same time, the body does not cause harm until they begin to manifest themselves. If, for some reason, there has been a decrease in local immunity, the fungi penetrate into the cells of the oral mucosa and begin to multiply rapidly there.

In the course of their life cycle, they release a large number of toxins that poison cells and provoke the development of inflammation. As a result, the mucous in the mouth becomes bright pink, swells and its structure becomes loose. If fungi «attack» the vessels and their toxins get into the blood, the symptoms of intoxication begin to appear in a person. With the blood flow, pathogenic fungal organisms spread through the body and settle in the organs (if the pharyngicosis is not treated in a timely manner).

Classification

According to the nature of the current, clinicians distinguish acute and chronic fungal pharyngitis. It is not uncommon for cases when diagnostics were not performed in a timely manner and no treatment was prescribed, and the pathology took a chronic course.

Also the ailment is qualified depending on local changes:


  1. pseudomembranous pharyngomycosis. For this form of an ailment, it is characteristic to form a plaque on the surface of the pharynx having a white, less often yellow color. It has a curdled appearance and can easily be removed with a medical spatula. Often after removing the plaque on the surface of the mucosa, you can find areas of hyperemia that bleed;
  2. catarrhal pharyngomycosis. With this clinical form, hyperemic areas with a smooth surface are formed at the back of the pharynx
  3. erosive-ulcerative pharyngomycosis. In places where a pathogenic fungus has penetrated into the mucous membrane, erosion and ulceration are formed. They can bleed.

Symptoms

When the acute form of the disease symptomatology is very pronounced. For the chronic course of pharyngomycosis, the frequency is characteristic — the periods of remission are replaced by periods of exacerbation of the disease (up to 10 times in 12 months).

For pharyngomycosis, uncomfortable sensations in the throat are characteristic:


  • scratching
  • Dryness
  • burning;
  • When eating or swallowing, painful sensations arise that tend to intensify and radiate into the lower jaw, ear.

In addition to these symptoms, the patient is troubled with tonsillicomycosis:


  1. increased fatigue;
  2. As the disease progresses, cervical lymph nodes increase;
  3. temperature increase;
  4. weakness.

Diagnostics

A qualified specialist may suspect the development of this ailment in humans already according to the existing characteristic complaints. Next, he will collect an anamnesis of life and disease and will conduct an examination.





Methods of diagnosing an ailment:


  • Mycological methods of research (detection of fungi in a material using a microscope)
  • culture research
  • OAM and UAC
  • Immunogram.

Differential diagnosis of the disease is carried out with the following diseases:


  1. Tuberculosis
  2. Acute pharyngitis
  3. Oncology
  4. syphilis
  5. diphtheria.

Treatment

Acute pharyngomycosis can be treated on an outpatient basis, but if the disease occurs with symptoms of severe intoxication or with the development of complications, the patient is recommended to be hospitalized in a hospital so that the doctors can monitor his condition.

In order for the treatment of pharyngomycosis to be most effective, it is indicated to take antifungal medications systemically (in the form of injections or tablets) and apply them locally. With this disease, the following groups of drugs are highly effective:


  • Allylamines;
  • Azoles
  • polyenes.

Selection of the drug is carried out after a cultural study and an infectious agent is detected. Usually, the drug of choice for the treatment of pathology is Fluconazole. Dosage is selected based on the general condition of the patient, as well as the severity of the course of his illness. If, for five days, from the beginning of his admission, a person’s condition has not improved, the remedy is required to be replaced.

For local treatment, the following drugs are used:


  1. Natamycin suspension
  2. Borax in glycerin;
  3. Clotrimazole;
  4. Miramistin.

Prevention

Under conditions of timely diagnosis and the appointment of competent treatment, the prognosis of the disease is more than favorable. If pharyngomycosis goes into chronic form, then it will be impossible to completely recover from the disease — it can only be transferred to the phase of remission.

Preventive measures:


  • strengthening the immune system
  • blood glucose monitoring
  • Use antibiotics only according to the indications and under the supervision of your doctor
  • With the first symptoms that indicate the development of endocrine system diseases, it is shown immediately to see a doctor.