Phlebothrombosis: Symptoms and Treatment

Phlebothrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the vessels of the lower extremities. It is noteworthy that in 80% of cases the disease is asymptomatic, which ultimately leads to pulmonary embolism. The latter often leads to death.



Official statistics say that every fourth person on the planet is affected. Most often, the disease affects women — they suffer from phlebitrombosis 6 times more often than men. Also, people after 40 years of age who suffer from excess weight have a significant risk of getting sick.

Etiology

There are three etiological groups:


  • congenital
  • Oncology
  • hormonal.

To the congenital group include such etiological factors:


  1. insufficient venous valves
  2. varicose veins
  3. pathological disorders of the elastic vein.

Such pathological disorders in the lower extremities lead to the fact that in the human body, the natural circulation is disturbed. As a consequence of this process — the formation of one or more thrombi.

To oncological group of pathology, it is possible to include such factors:


  • Malignant formation in the pelvic organs
  • stomach cancer
  • pancreatic cancer
  • Oncological lung disease.

Since chemotherapy is often used to treat such diseases, it leads to the destruction of the walls of the vessels. In addition, such patients lead a sedentary lifestyle, which violates the natural movement of blood through the body. Also, drugs for the treatment of cancer lead to a deterioration in blood coagulability. All this in the end can lead to phlebothrombosis of the lower limbs.

It is worth noting that with this etiological picture often formed thrombophlebitis — inflammation of the walls of blood vessels.

To the group of hormonal disorders can be attributed such etiological factors:


  1. hormonal failures during pregnancy
  2. use of oral contraceptives without doctor’s advice;
  3. abnormalities in the reproductive system.

In addition, I can also provoke the disease such factors:


  • fractures;
  • obesity, ailments associated with metabolic disorders
  • infectious ailments
  • lower limb paralysis
  • consequences of heavy operations.

In the main risk group, people older than 40 years, smokers, leading a sedentary lifestyle.

Pathogenesis

As a result of injury, disease or other pathological processes, the inner vein of the vein is destroyed. Such damage leads to the ingress of thrombin into the blood. This substance increases the viscosity of the blood. As a result, normal blood circulation is disrupted, a thrombus is formed, which ultimately leads to phlebotroma of the deep veins.

General Symptoms

There are no practical symptoms at the initial stage of phlebothrombosis development. As the pathological process develops, the clinical picture can manifest itself as follows:





  1. Feeling of heaviness in the legs, especially toward the end of the day
  2. cold in the lower limbs;
  3. edema, a marked increase in leg volume (especially in the knee area)
  4. on the affected areas the skin becomes cyanotic, pale;
  5. dilating pain in the inner side of the tibia
  6. unstable temperature, sometimes up to 39 degrees.

In the chronic stage of phlebothrombosis of the deep veins, the skin on the affected areas can become glossy. In this case, the veins on the lower extremities are well seen, and the diseased leg is much colder than healthy.

Classification

There are phlebothrombosis by the nature of the localization, by the degree of development and by the appearance of the thrombus.

Localization:


  • ileofemoral phlebothrombosis — in the iliac and femoral veins
  • leg musculature;
  • phlebotrombosis of the perianal zone (hemorrhoids).

Only the first two subtypes pertain to phlebothrombosis of the lower extremities.

In terms of development, differentiate:


  1. Acute phlebothrombosis (development of the disease lasts no more than two weeks);
  2. subacute form of the disease (development of the disease from two months to several years).

In appearance distinguish thrombi of this type:


  • occlusive (thrombi stretched across the vessel)
  • near-walled;
  • Flotation (can be attached only to one site on the vessel or move along the entire length of the artery).

Treatment of the disease depends on which type of disease is diagnosed.

Diagnostics

Laboratory diagnostic methods are practically not basic. Such a doctor can appoint such tests only if there are prerequisites for this — you need to set a blood group, check blood for an infection and so on.

Initially, a personal examination by a phlebologist or surgeon is carried out. After finding out an anamnesis, the patient is prescribed instrumental tests. The standard program includes the following:


  1. angiography
  2. Doplerography
  3. Homans test
  4. a march test
  5. Mayo-Pratt test.

Based on the above tests, the doctor can make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment.

Treatment

Treatment is prescribed only by a competent specialist after the diagnosis and accurate diagnosis. If the patient is diagnosed with phlebothrombosis of the lower extremities, then hospitalization with strict bed rest is mandatory.

In the framework of drug treatment prescribe drugs of this spectrum of action:


  • Anticoagulants of indirect type
  • Thrombolytics
  • hemorheological active preparations
  • Anti-inflammatory topical application (ointment).

In combination with drug treatment, non-drug therapy is prescribed — the affected leg is bandaged with elastic bandage. This helps to reduce pain and allows more or less normal movement.

If conservative treatment does not give a positive result or the patient has already developed thrombophlebitis, then surgical intervention is used. A special clamp is installed in the vein, which does not let the thrombus to the heart or lung.

If the clinical picture allows, an operation is performed to completely remove the thrombus from the vessel.

Also, complex treatment implies a special diet. Within the framework of such nutrition one should follow such recommendations:


  1. Drink at least 2 liters of liquids daily
  2. eat rich food for antioxidants
  3. limit consumption of fatty and acute
  4. alcohol is completely excluded.

Such recommendations can be regarded as preventive measures.

Forecast




If the treatment is started in time, no significant complications are observed. But, provided that the patient will comply with the regime of proper nutrition, lead moderate physical activity. Otherwise, thromboembolism may occur. And this often leads to death. Therefore, with the first symptoms you need to urgently seek medical help.