Polyhydramnios: Symptoms and Treatment
Polyhydramnios in pregnant women — a pathological condition characterized by excessive accumulation in the cavity of the reproductive organ of amniotic fluid, which in the medical literature is also called amniotic. The amount of such fluid inside the uterus during the course of the entire period of bearing of the child increases (depending on the period). And this is a normal state. Amniotic fluid performs a lot of different and important functions — protects the fetus from traumatization, infection of it, and it actively participates in its nutrition. The child swallows it, after which it is removed from the body in the form of urine. If the amount of water increases, then this natural process has been violated for some reason, therefore it is required to carry out diagnostics, to identify the pathology that provoked polyhydramnios, and to eliminate it.
Moderate polyhydramnios during pregnancy or any other forms of it can be identified through the use of methods of instrumental and laboratory diagnosis. Of great importance is ultrasound, which gives doctors the opportunity to determine the index of the amniotic fluid. This will later help establish the type of pathology and will allow doctors to make an effective method of treatment. To treat such a condition is recommended in hospital settings and under the strict supervision of the attending physician.
To date, qualified professionals can not yet accurately identify the true causes, because of which women exhibit polyhydramnios during pregnancy. But research in this area continues. In about 30% of all diagnoses of polyhydramnios, the cause of it has not been established. But the clinicians identified a risk group. It includes representatives of the fair sex, who have been diagnosed with such pathological conditions:
- heart disease;
- Diabetes mellitus (a common cause of the formation of a pregnant woman in a polyhydramnios)
- Rhesus-conflict. The cause of this pathological condition is the discrepancy of the Rh factor of the parents — the mother is Rh-negative, the father is positive;
- progression of kidney disease in acute and chronic form
- heart and blood vessel disease;
- several fruits at once;
- The risk of polyhydramnios is increased if a woman has been infected with rubella, herpes, cytomegalovirus or a causative agent of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.
Anomalies in the development of the fetus can also cause symptoms of moderate hydration or other forms in the fair sex. Medical statistics are such that polyhydramnios were more often observed in those mothers whose children had heart and nervous system defects, as well as various genetic abnormalities.
The polyhydramnios in the last trimester of pregnancy often progresses due to the fact that already a large enough fetus absorbs too much amniotic fluid, and the organism simply does not have time to produce it. It is important as soon as possible to diagnose such a pathological condition and conduct its treatment in order to increase the chances of a pregnant woman for safe delivery and full-fledged pregnancy. It is for this reason that you should closely monitor the condition of a woman and, at the earliest symptoms in the early stages, immediately seek qualified help.
In medicine, there are three forms of polyhydramnios during childbearing:
- Acute polyhydramnios . Symptoms of this condition usually manifest themselves very clearly, which makes it possible immediately to diagnose it and conduct treatment. In pregnant women, the amount of amniotic fluid sharply increases, which carries a danger not only for the health of the fetus in her womb, but also for her. The progression of this form of polyhydramnios is rapid — sometimes the level of the amniotic fluid increases in a couple of hours. General health deteriorates sharply, and because of the large accumulation of water, the risk of rupture of the uterus is high;
- Chronic . The pathological state progresses gradually. Most often it is detected by specialists in late pregnancy, as the symptoms are almost not manifested. This condition is also dangerous with its consequences;
- moderate polyhydramnios . This form of pathology is diagnosed in the absence of symptoms and complaints from the patient. Usually, moderate polyhydramnios are established with the help of ultrasound. In this case, the amount of amniotic fluid increases gradually and the deviation from the norm is insignificant. With moderate polyhydramnios, the chance that a woman will be able to grow on her own and take out a full-fledged child is quite high.
Symptoms of this condition are usually expressed fairly brightly. The exception is moderate polyhydramnios, in which signs can be completely absent, since the deviation from the norm is small. But this does not mean that you do not need to treat this condition.
For the acute and chronic form of pathology, the following basic features are characteristic:
- shortness of breath;
- A feeling of heaviness in the abdomen. Perhaps the appearance of uncomfortable sensations;
- Increase in heart rate. Usually observed suddenly;
- the belly grows in size
- the uterus increases;
- strong weakness;
- large and rough stretches appear on the pregnant woman’s body
- There is also a squelching in the abdomen. This condition is called a fluctuation by clinicians.
Diagnosis of moderate polyhydramnios whether other forms of pathology is engaged in a gynecologist obstetrician. First of all, conducting diagnostic activities is aimed at finding out the cause of this condition, but, as already mentioned above, it can not always be identified. Apply methods of laboratory and instrumental diagnostics. One of the most informative methods is carrying out ultrasonic diagnostics. Only after the results of the examination and diagnosis are obtained, the doctor will be able to make the most effective treatment plan.
Treatment of pathology can be carried out both in a hospital setting and at home. Everything depends on the severity of its course. But in any case, the doctor must monitor the effectiveness of the therapy. Treatment of polyhydramnios is carried out using the following groups of drugs:
- antibiotics. They should be treated with polyhydramnios if they are caused by infectious agents
- Diuretics are necessarily included in the treatment plan, as they not only eliminate edema, but also reduce the amount of amniotic fluid
- Vitamin Complexes
- medicines that allow normalize uteroplacental blood flow, metabolic processes and microcirculation
Many pregnant women are interested in the question — what is dangerous polyhydramnios? This condition can lead to many adverse effects, so it is so important to diagnose it in time and conduct a full treatment.
There are possible consequences:
- fetal death
- births before the due date
- the fetus is located in the reproductive organ incorrectly
- During an operation, an umbilical cord or limb may fall out.