Prostatic Calculi

Etiology

Prostatic calculi (stones in the prostate) is the presence of organic or non-organic particles within the acini and the prostatic tubules.



The disease affects 80% of men over 55 years old.

The main etiological factors of the disease are:

  • Chronic non-managed inflammation in the prostate (chronic prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases of the prostate, prostate adenoma, prostate cancer);
  • Pelvic congestion as a result of sedentary lifestyle;
  • Traumatic injuries of the urogenital system causing functional disorders;
  • Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinoexcretory canals and urogenital infection;
  • Irregular sex;
  • Uncontrolled use of the sulfanilamide drugs;
  • Poor nutrition.

Excessive loss of heat, stress and emotional upsets, smoking and excessive use of alcohol also contribute to the development of the stones in the prostate.

Classification of stones

There are several types of the calculi (stones). They differ in several aspects.

Depending on the chemical composition the following calculi are distinguished:

  • Phosphate stones: they are formed from the acid phosphate;
  • Oxalate: they are formed from the oxalic acid;
  • Calcium stones: they are formed from the calcium salt and they are the most difficult to eliminate;
  • Uric acid stones: they are formed from the crystals of uric acid.

Depending on the manner and mechanism of production, the following calculi are distinguished:

  • Endogeneous (primary) – they are produced in the result of the obstruction in the prostate (a long-term congestion of prostatic secretion activates production of amyloid corpuscles with deposits of calcium and phosphate); the stones may be localized in any part of the prostate, they are oval shaped and their diameter is 2-2.5 ml.
  • Exogenous (secondary) – the intra-prostatic reflux of urine is responsible for producing the stones; they are localized in the prostatic distal tubules; they are pointed and their diameter is 4-5 millimeters.

Clinical presentation of the disease

Calculi in the prostate gland contribute to the development of various symptoms. The symptoms are manifested depending on the number, localization, size and shape of the stones as well as on the duration of the disease.

The signs of the prostatic calculi may be both general and specific pathological symptoms.

General symptoms of the prostatic calculi are:

  1. general sense of weakness;
  2. performance and concentration decrease;
  3. subfebrile temperature (37,50С);
  4. nausea;
  5. frequent headaches;
  6. loss of appetite.

Specific symptoms of the prostatic calculi are:

  • tensive nagging pains in the lower abdomen and in the groin area radiating to the scrotum, gluteal muscles, penis and lower extremities. Typically the pains appear after a long sitting or walking, sex or other physical activities;
  • pain aggravation during defecation;
  • sharp pain during erection and ejaculation;
  • continuous pain in the lumbosacral region;
  •  Urinary dysfunction: intensive painful spasms, oliguria, nocturia (frequent urination at night time);
  • hematuria (urine with blood);
  • hematospermia (blood in the semen);
  • low libido;
  • impotency or erectile dysfunction.

The appearance of one or more symptoms may indicate the stones in the prostate and it is a serious reason to visit a urologist.  




Diagnostics

Diagnostics of this disease includes the collection of medical history data, examination, laboratory tests and instrumental analysis.

The manual rectal examination is required as it allows to detect an induration on the prostatic wall and crepitation (if there are many small calculi). Rectal palpation allows to detect only quite large stones, that is why the examination is performed very carefully. This procedure is painless as the tissue is dead and the gland becomes flabby.

The most precise method of diagnostics are the following:

  • Ultrasound diagnostics;
  • X-ray examination;
  • Cystogram;
  • Bacteriological examination of semen;
  • Microscopic examination of semen;
  • Histological analysis of the biopsy samples;
  • Bacterial inoculation of the semen and prostatic secretion.

A patient also undergoes clinical and biochemical blood and urine tests.

Treatment

Prostatic calculi treatment involves a complex step therapy: antibiotics, anti-inflammatory therapy and physiotherapy treatment techniques. Sometimes a surgery is required.

Antibacterial therapy includes the use of:

  • Erythromycin (Ermycin)
  • Vibramycin (Doxycyline, Unidox)
  • Norfloxacin (Bactinor, Nolicin)
  • Ofloxacin (Flobocin)
  • Clarithromycin (Fromilid)

Alpha-blockers (to improve urodynamics):

  • Doxazosin
  • Tamsulosin

Only your doctor can set the correct doses!

Anti-inflammatory non-steroid drugs:

  • Diclac (Diclofenac)
  • Ibuprofen
  • Meloxicam (Reumoxicam)

In addition to the drugs and physiotherapy treatment, it is very important to follow a special diet. It is recommended to avoid fried, smoked and fat meat (including poultry), bread and pastries, hot spices, salt, pepper, spinach, and sorrel.

If medications are not effective in treating the stones in the prostate, surgical treatment is indicated. The following procedures may be recommended to remove the stones from the prostate:

  • Endoscopic ectomy, specifically transurethral resection of the prostate;
  • Laser lithotripsy;
  • Electroresection;
  • Distant pulse-wave lithotripsy.

Removal of small stones from the prostate is performed, mainly, with the help of laser technologies. The laser breaks the stones into very small pieces (grains of sand) and they are eliminated from the organism in a natural way. The advantages of this procedure are that it is a bloodless and painless surgery and it lasts about 15 minutes.

The treatment protocol is chosen individually, depending on the severity of the disease. The treatment should include the following aims:

  • Proper anti-inflammatory therapy;
  • Regulation of the prostatic secretion drainage;
  • Improvement of tissues trophism with the help of physiotherapy treatment techniques;
  • Stage treatment regimen under ultrasound control;
  • Strict avoidance of massage therapy;
  • Impact on etiological factors and their elimination.

Consequences

Timely treatment increases the chances on positive prognosis for a patient. Late detection of the stones in the prostate may have serious consequences:

  1. Risk of pathogenic flora development;
  2. Microabscesses in the prostate (as a result of traumatic injury caused by a stone);
  3. Sexual dysfunction (pains, erectile dysfunction etc.);
  4. Dysfunction of the urinary tract (continuous pain attacks, sensation of burning, and oliguria);
  5. Infertility;
  6. Adenoma and prostatic sclerosis;
  7. Pathologic scarring and, consequently, deformation of the prostate;
  8. Prostatic necrosis.

Natural treatment of prostatic calculi

Recently it was confirmed that natural treatment of prostatic calculi is an effective method. To suppress inflammation in the prostate and regulate the viscosity of the secretion, it is recommended to use flaxseed oil, fir extract, and fresh onion. It will be useful to drink cornsilk and rhubarb root infusions, rose hips brew and other diuretic herbal products.

Stones in the prostate is a serious disease with a long and painful progress. If the disease is not treated in time, it may lead to serious consequences which are difficult to treat.

That is why, if you noticed any general or specific symptoms, immediately visit a qualified specialist.