SARS: symptoms and treatment
What is ARVI? Acute respiratory viral infections are infectious diseases of the viral etiology, which affect the body through the airways by airborne droplets. Most often, this ailment is diagnosed in children aged 3-14 years. As the statistics show, SARS in infants does not develop, there were only isolated cases when a child at that age was ill with an ailment.
If expressed in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases ICD-10, ARVI is assigned code J00-J06. Many people do not understand what is the difference between ARVI and ARI, and whether there is any at all. These two diseases differ only in the transmission of infection, otherwise they are indistinguishable, therefore they are considered synonymous.
What influences the formation of ARVI?
Such a disease can occur when the virus enters the body. They are transmitted through the air. The most common are:
- Influenza viruses
The death of these harmful microorganisms is carried out with the influence of disinfectants and UV rays. Unfortunately, when diagnosing, it is not always possible to determine the type of virus that struck the body.
More on the formation of ARVI affects communication with a person affected by this ailment. There are certain types of viral pathologies, the infection of which can occur from a sick bird or animal.
Symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection in children are more pronounced in influenza. Parainfluenza is accompanied by a less pronounced intoxication and non-prolonged viremia. But this pathology is very dangerous for the child’s body, as often false croup develops. Small bronchi and bronchioles affect the respiratory syncytial virus. Such a pathological process leads to a violation of the ventilation of the lungs and leads to the formation of atelectasis and pneumonia.
There is no definite classification of ARVI in children. Concerning the severity of the course of the disease, the following forms are distinguished:
The degree of severity of the disease is determined taking into account the severity of manifestations of intoxication and catarrhal phenomena.
The incubation period of this type of ARVI lasts from several hours to 1-2 days. A characteristic feature of the initial phase of influenza is the prevalence of intoxication over catarrhal. The ICD-10 international classification code is J10. The following symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection in adults are observed:
- increase in body temperature to 39-40 degrees for several days
- total fatigue;
- feeling of shattering
In children, the disease can be manifested by the following symptoms:
- painful sensations in the eyes, abdomen and muscles
- burning in the chest
- nausea and vomiting
- A sore throat.
Catarrhal phenomena have a more pronounced effect and are accompanied by dry cough, constant sneezing, discharge from the nose.
ARVI in pregnancy at term 1 trimester, manifested transient changes in the urinary system.
How much does the temperature with ARVI in the form of influenza stay? In the normal course of the disease, its rates begin to decline after a few days of illness.
The incubation period lasts 2-7 days. This form of acute respiratory viral infection is characterized by acute course and increased symptoms. According to ICD-10, the disease has code J12.2. The following manifestations of ARVI in children and adults are noted:
- Body temperature up to 38 degrees. It persists for 7-10 days.
- Rough cough, hoarseness, and voice tone change.
- Painful sensations in the chest
- Runny nose
SARS in children parainfluenza can be accompanied by the defeat of not only the upper, but also the lower ways, resulting in the development of obstructive bronchitis. How much does the temperature last for ARVI? As a rule, its decrease and the severity of all manifestations disappears after 7 days.
When the symptoms of an illness do not leave the body of children and adults after 7-10 days, it is necessary to seek the advice of a specialist. Special attention in this case deserves children, since untimely rendering of assistance entails a number of serious consequences.
The incubation period of the reovirus infection leaves 2-5 days. According to the international classification of diseases ICD-10, the code of the disease is equal to B97.5. Reovirus infection causes the following symptoms:
- coryza and cough, associated with vomiting
- pain in the abdomen
- liquid stool without impurities
- severe intoxication
- children observe a rise in temperature to 38-39 degrees;
- redness of the face
- There are dry wheezing and hard breathing in the lungs
- when probing the patient, pain and noise of intestinal peristalsis are felt in the ileal region to the right;
- increase in liver size
- damage to the respiratory, digestive, nervous system
- development of pneumonia, hepatitis.
This type of disease can be transmitted in various ways. For this reason, rhinovirus infection has become very popular today. The disease is characterized by its manifestations:
- The rise in temperature to 38-39 degrees is observed only in small children, in adult patients they do not rise above 37.5 degrees.
- Massive discharge from the nose, which are watery or muco-purulent. Pus may start to separate after a few days from the onset of the disease.
- Swelling and inflammation in the nasal mucosa
- Although the patient is concerned about sore throat, his larynx is conditionally healthy, with no redness or appearance.
- Slightly enlarged lymph nodes on the neck, soreness is not felt.
Adenovirus infection is a pathological process related to the ARVI group and is characterized by damage to the lymphoid tissue and mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. According to the international classification of diseases of ICD-10, adenoviruses have code B97.0. The initial stage of pathology can be acute or occur gradually. Here everything depends on the level of immunity of the human body. The following symptoms manifest themselves:
- chills, aching headache, tenderness of joints and muscles
- temperature rise to 38-39 degrees on the 3rd day of illness
- nasal congestion, discharge may be mucous or purulent;
- redness of the tonsils, accompanied by a white coating in the form of dots
- enlarged lymph nodes around the neck
- hoarse voice
- dry or barking cough.
ARVI during childbirth
Very often diagnose ARVI in pregnancy. There are situations when a woman does not even suspect about the onset of pregnancy, is affected by a viral disease. A major risk of acute respiratory viral infection during pregnancy is when the term is 1 or 2 trimester. In this period it is very difficult to avoid a number of consequences that adversely affect not only the state of the mother, but also the baby.
SARS in pregnancy at 1 term is a frequent occurrence. It’s not for nothing that the first trimester is considered the most dangerous period. It was at this time that the immune system of Mom is very weak. The first trimester is a state of pregnancy, which doctors call fragile. There is an introduction of the fetal egg into the uterine wall, and the laying of the organs and systems of the future person is carried out. Experts diagnose that ARVI in pregnancy at the term of 1 trimester, in 18% of cases causes miscarriage.
A pregnant woman often does not even suspect that she will soon become a mother, «picks up» ARVI, after 2 weeks she has a miscarriage that is not accompanied by painful sensations.
In such a short period of pregnancy, as the first trimester, the body prefers to remove the fetal egg when the onset of acute respiratory infections occurs. Thus, it is possible to reduce the possibility of birth crumbs with deviations.
Consequences of ARVI
ARVI in children and adults with untimely treatment can cause a number of inflammatory processes: otitis, bronchitis, pneumonia. In addition, the pathology may be accompanied by the attachment of a urinary tract infection: pancreatitis, cholangitis.
If there is severe intoxication, then the development of cerebral complications in the form of convulsions and meningeal syndrome.
Most often, the effects of the disease occur against a background of incorrect or untimely treatment. If therapeutic measures were started on time, and the patient fully complies with all the doctor’s recommendations, the risk of complications formation is minimized.
Treatment of ARVI in children and adults is most often carried out at home. If there is a severe form of the disease or the course is complicated, then hospitalization of the patient is required. When diagnosing viral infections, it is important to observe bed rest when there is an increased body temperature.
ARVI can be treated with non-drug therapy. It is distinguished by the observance of bed rest, abundant drink, wrapping and various inhalations using folk methods. Treatment of ARVI with the help of medications involves drugs whose effect is aimed at arresting the pathogen and specific symptoms.
The following drugs help to treat ARVI:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This category includes Ibuprofen, Paracetamol and Diclofenac. These drugs have anti-inflammatory effect, reduce temperature indexes, stop pain syndrome.
- Antihistamines. They are characterized by the presence of a powerful anti-inflammatory effect, as a result of which it is possible to eliminate all manifestations of the disease. This category includes the following drugs: Tavegil, Dimedrol, Suprastin.
- Drugs from sore throat. Here you can use Geksoral, Bioparox. A good idea is to rinse your throat with a disinfectant solution.
- Cough preparations. They help to reduce the viscosity of phlegm, make it liquid and easy to cough. Apply drugs such as ATSTS, Mukaltin, Bronholitin.
Antibiotics for ARVI
Antibiotics for ARVI are prescribed taking into account complications and the general condition of the patient. Antibiotics penicillin series prescribed for people prone to allergies.
If there is angina, then you should take such antibiotics in ARVI, as Ecoclave, Amoxiclav. Antibiotics of this group have a mild effect on the human body.
If the organs of the respiratory system are affected, doctors prescribe antibiotics such as Macroben, Zetamax, Sumamed. Antibiotics from a number of fluoroquinolones are as follows: Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin. These antibiotics are forbidden for children. Since the skeleton of the child is not yet fully formed, there may be side reactions. In addition, the antibiotics of this group are referred to reserve drugs in the treatment of ARI. If you start taking such antibiotics at an early age, then it will become very addictive.
Many doctors do not recommend treating ARVI with antibiotic drugs after the appearance of the first manifestations of the disease. As a rule, antibiotics are prescribed only after an accurate diagnosis and during a severe course of the disease.
It is necessary to treat ARVI with antiviral drugs, because the main cause of the disease is the virus. Antiviral drugs have a different spectrum of action. Their reception should be conducted only after an exact statement of the diagnosis. The following effective antiviral drugs are distinguished in the treatment of ARVI:
- Arbidol is a drug related to antiviral drugs, based on a component such as umiphenovir.
- Kagonez is an antiviral drug of Russian origin. Its action is aimed at activating the production of an interferon protein by the body. Such antiviral drugs as Kagonez, destroy infectious agents of viral etiology.
- Rimantadine. Such antiviral drugs in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections have a powerful effect on the arrest of various viruses. Its main component is adamantine.
- Cycloferon is a drug based on meglumine acridon acetate. Such antiviral medicines activate the production of an interferon protein.
- Amiksin is a drug, in which tilorone is present. Such anti-inflammatory medicines are prescribed for therapy of acute respiratory infections, and also as prevention.
ARI and ARVI are diseases characterized by a high degree of infection, therefore it is very important to take care of prevention.
Prevention of ARVI and ARI includes the following activities:
- Do not visit places where there is a large crowd of people.
- In the midst of an influenza epidemic, prevention of acute respiratory infections and ARI involves vacations and the cancellation of festivities.
- Wet house cleaning using disinfectants and regular airing is mandatory prevention of ARVI and ARI
ARVI is a group of diseases, which most often affects the child’s body. This condition is accompanied by fever, cough and runny nose. All symptoms go away after a few days. If this does not happen, then you need to seek help from a doctor. Otherwise, this will lead to serious complications.