Skin mycosis: symptoms and treatment
Skin mycoses are fungal diseases that cause infectious microorganisms. They affect the skin and subcutaneous tissue, penetrating through scratches and micro-traumas. Then spores of fungi get through the mucous membrane in the respiratory tract and accumulate in the lungs. The stage of the disease depends on the source of infection and the specific fungus. The development of this disease can provoke any disease that weakens the body’s immune system.
From the place of damage, microbes spread to other parts of the skin and infect the mucous membrane, genitals, digestive system, lungs. From the illness, the face, hair, trunk, arms, legs and even nails suffer.
The danger of an ailment is that it often has a chronic form. The earlier you turn to a medical institution for help with mycosis, the sooner the treatment will be and soon the recovery will come. This ailment can disfigure the skin of the face, hands, legs and other areas of the body, hit any organs and cause concomitant diseases (allergies, mycids). The risk group for mycosis is children and people of advanced age, although a man of any gender and age can pick up the infection.
Species of mycosis of the skin
Mycosis is a large group of diseases. Different subspecies of pathology differ in localization and degree of lesion. There are two main groups. Deep mycoses — opportunistic and subcutaneous, sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis. Superficial — candidiasis, dermatomycosis and keratomycosis.
- keratomycosis. This group is most often found lichen multicolored, which is characterized by the appearance of spots on the body, a person who, as the pathological process progresses, begin to peel;
- Dermatomycosis. This group combines several types of skin diseases. The appearance of dermatomycosis is said in the event that the body has characteristic red spots, inflames the skin, there is an active peeling,
- Candidiasis are diseases caused by yeast fungi. Infirmities of this type are spreading through the tissues of all organs and parts of the body, with the exception of hair. Infection often develops in the folds of the skin. The most dangerous places are in the armpit, in the interdigital spaces
- Histoplasmosis, chromomycosis, cryptococcosis, etc. This group of infectious diseases is characterized by infection of the deep layers of the skin, and therefore they are the most dangerous and severe, but are rare. In this case, it is necessary to conduct a timely and thorough diagnosis and to prescribe adequate treatment. As a rule, it is very difficult to treat pathology data.
Mycosis of the skin is acute and chronic, deep and superficial, focal and widespread.
The main cause of all mycosis of the skin is a fungus that develops and affects tissues of organs and parts of the body. The danger of the disease is that all patients suffer differently. Some get infected immediately, others have a hidden disease, while in others, the presence of infection in the body does not cause pathology and they become carriers of fungal spores.
The mechanism of the development of the disease depends on the protective factors of the organism of a particular person. If a person has weak immunity or HIV infection, takes antibiotics or has skin damages, poor hygiene, the risk of developing this fungal disease is very high. To this, you can still add varicose veins and trophic ulcers. Best fungus multiplies and grows in a humid and warm environment.
Infectious microorganisms can penetrate inside during medical procedures. When the defenses of the body decrease, conditions for invasive fungal growth appear.
Since mycosis of the skin of the face, arms, legs and other parts of the body develops in a weakened organism, this infection can progress during diabetes mellitus or immunodeficiency if there is a malignant neoplasm or after an excessive intake of antibiotics, steroids.
If the infection is insignificant, then mycosis may not be accompanied by numerous symptoms. But systemic mycoses widely spread and affect any part of the body: from the scalp and face to the tips of the nails. The systemic can include a candidiasis and visceral candidiasis, meningitis of infants, streptococcal pneumonia and disseminated candidiasis, aspergillosis of the brain, lungs and middle ear.
A variety of fungi that cause mycosis of the skin, affect both humans and animals. They enter the body in various ways. The main ways are microcracks and significant damage to the skin, medical manipulation. Factors contributing to their further development in the human body are radiation, chronic diseases and various disorders of the body’s processes.
So, the most common causes of infection with fungal spores:
- Weakened immune system
- chronic ailments
- poor hygiene;
- long-term use of medications;
- Poor diet and poor quality food
- bad habits;
- spoiled medicines, etc.
With mycosis, the skin has various symptoms, but they do not appear immediately. Symptomatology in many respects depends on what part of the body was affected by this infectious disease. If there is itching and flaky skin particles on the face, hands, abdomen, back, legs — these are the first symptoms of mycosis. The patient should immediately consult a qualified specialist for diagnosis and treatment. This stage of the disease is very suitable for treatment with antifungal drugs and, as a rule, does not cause complications.
Then there are red chubby spots of oval or round shape. The skin becomes a brownish shade and begins to peel off, resembling small scales. There may be red follicular formations.
Mycosis of the smooth skin of the follicular-nodular form is characterized by a pustular rash. Infection can even affect the hair of the dog. Often there are intertrigutions between the fingers. This is how the mycosis of the skin of the hands and feet begins. As the progression of the pathology arises, the skin becomes rough, and the skin becomes rough on the legs. In addition to peeling, symptoms such as painful purulent vesicles may appear, the nails begin to separate, turn yellow and can be significantly destroyed.
Mycosis of the scalp is manifested not only by the peeling, but also by the dimness, the weakening of the hair. Particularly unpleasant is skin disease. In general, the patient can increase body temperature, there is pain and general weakness.
The problem is that the primary symptoms are so insignificant that the person himself does not pay attention to them and does not consult a doctor. At this time the disease gradually progresses and then it is more difficult to cure it. If the disease is detected at an early stage, then there are more chances to cure mycosis completely without the possibility of relapses. But without competent and timely treatment the ailment can give a large number of complications.
Diagnosis and treatment
Dermatologists or doctors of mycology can diagnose such a disease. First of all you need to come to a consultation with a doctor. He should examine the foci on the skin of the face, limbs and other areas of the body, take surface scales for laboratory examination under a microscope. To assign the right treatment, you need to determine the cause of the disease with the help of cultural methods of research.
As for the treatment itself, there is no one-way method, because it must be comprehensive and directed not only to recovery, but also to eliminate the causes that caused the disease. Therefore, the treatment course is developed depending on such factors:
- Duration of the disease
- type of infectious fungus
- the seat of the hearth;
- infection rate
- the state of the body as a whole
- the possibility of an allergic reaction to any drugs
- The age and characteristics of the patient’s body
Therapeutic therapy is selected by a highly specialized doctor (dermatologist or mycologist). Drug medications accumulate in the blood and help restore skin. Most often, doctors appoint «Griseofulvin». It is safe and practically does not give side effects. Therefore, it is most often prescribed for the treatment of children. No less effective are the following drugs:
To determine the drug, you first need to establish the appearance of the fungus. Then the doctor will prescribe the most effective medicine.
More doctors can prescribe medicines for a wide range of activities. All of them should have an antifungal effect. To avoid side effects, the patient must be constantly under the supervision of a doctor. During pregnancy and lactation, women are prohibited from taking antifungal medicines. It is very cautious to choose treatment for patients who have liver disease or allergies.
In addition to medicines, it is necessary to use ointments, sprays and creams with antifungal components in the treatment: «Econazole», «Miconazole», «Oxiconazole». Useful substances penetrate to the foci of reproduction of infectious bacteria and kill them. Ointments are also selected taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient. Sometimes you need to stick a hot spot with a band-aid. If the infection has spread to the fleece hair, they need to be removed by epilation.
After completing the full course of treatment, you need to pass tests for the presence of fungus. This will help the doctor determine if the patient has completely cured the mycosis. If there is a negative result, then the treatment was successful. In the case, if the result is positive — the doctor needs to develop a new treatment plan, more effective. Since skin mycoses may reappear, preventive measures should be taken.
Treatment with folk remedies
If a person has symptoms of skin mycosis, first of all, you need to go to the hospital for a consultation with a doctor who will perform the diagnosis and prescribe a course of treatment. But to significantly alleviate the condition will help traditional medicine. They do not guarantee a complete recovery, but will only be an auxiliary option. All procedures must be performed at night.
The affected area is well washed with running water. After that, it should be treated with a cotton swab with iodine or greenery. Also, damaged areas of the skin can be treated with herbs — white chauffeur or tissom, nightshade black or clematis. You can also use ointments based on pork fat, petroleum jelly and herbs. But picking dried flowers, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Immunomodulating properties are possessed by such plants as veronica, licorice, celandine, duckweed. Also in folk medicine is widely used mustard, mint, yarrow, hops, dandelion and jaoster. Antifungal properties are celandine, autumnal, thix. The use of folk remedies will help to eliminate the unpleasant symptoms of ailment. But they can be used for treatment only with the permission of their attending physician.
There is a chance of a relapse of mycosis of the skin. If a person has the first symptoms that indicate a mycosis, that is, redness and itching, immediately need to visit a medical facility. In order not to become infected with spores of the fungus, preventive actions should be taken, the main thing is to improve hygiene compliance. When you visit the sauna, swimming pool, a common shower, you must wear replaceable shoes. After that, it is recommended to treat shoes with salicylic alcohol. It is also worth remembering that in a healthy body, a fungal infection can not take root, therefore, every day it is necessary to strengthen your immune system.