Tachycardia: Symptoms and Treatment
As a term such as tachycardia, it is customary to perceive a rapid heartbeat at any specificity of its origin. The average figures for this are on the order of more than 100 beats per minute. Tachycardia, the symptoms of which, although they consist in rapid heartbeat, are characterized, meanwhile, by the correctness of the rhythm of the heartbeat, respectively, the duration of the intervals arising between the cardiac contractions is also constant. The same condition that is characterized by an unexpected occurrence of tachycardia and sudden termination of it, is defined as paroxysmal tachycardia.
General description of the disease
If we consider the stable state of a person, then this is at a normal temperature in a lying position, the order of 80 beats per minute. Standing in the normal state is about 100 strokes, but if the indicators exceed this rate — then it is, respectively, about tachycardia.
Tachycardia happens in two forms, that is, physiological tachycardia and tachycardia are pathological. Physiological tachycardia provokes a rapid heartbeat due to certain physical exertion and anxiety and other similar conditions of a changed nature. As for the pathological tachycardia, with it, the increase in cardiac strokes is provoked by the appearance of diseases. These include febrile syndromes and various types of disruptions related to the endocrine system, mental and nervous disorders, alcohol poisoning of the body. Often this condition results from the reduction in the long-term motor functions and malfunctions noted in the work done by the heart. In this case, in the latter case, heart failure may subsequently develop.
When considering the diagnosis as a whole, it is important to determine which specific tachycardia is peculiar in a particular case to the patient’s condition. It can be chronic or paroxysmal. For paroxysmal tachycardia, the doctor will need to determine whether it is paroxysmal or sinus tachycardia. So, with sinus tachycardia, the patient can accurately determine the onset of the attack and its completion can not. It is noteworthy that often patients with tachycardia generally do not notice its occurrence, while some of them, on the contrary, experience considerable discomfort from rapid heartbeat.
The definition of tachycardia is available when listening to the heart, as well as when measuring the heartbeat. Sinus tachycardia, first of all, requires eliminating the factors that provoked its appearance.
Causes of tachycardia
Tachycardia can occur due to a variety of causes. As we noted, it can arise as a normal phenomenon, caused by emotional and physical stress, fever, smoking or drinking alcohol. Also, the increase in heart rate is observed in a situation when blood pressure decreases, which can occur, for example, in bleeding, lowering hemoglobin (anemia) refers to an additional factor that provokes it. Do not exclude the increased heart rate and in the presence of purulent infection, as well as malignant tumors, with the use of certain drugs as an adverse event and as a consequence of impaired function in the thyroid gland. And, finally, there is a separate group of tachycardias, the causes of which are the heart muscle itself or disorders that are relevant to the electrical conduction system that is characteristic of the heart.
Tachycardia of the heart: symptoms of the disease
Tachycardia as a whole is characterized by a pronounced symptom. Among the main of them it is customary to distinguish the following:
- A sharp increase in the heartbeat rhythms of a paroxysmal nature
- General weakness;
- Dizziness attacks
- A rush of faintness, a feeling of a partial lack of air
- Darkening in the eyes, provoked by a violation in the blood supply to the brain
- Shortness of breath;
- The appearance of pain in the heart, chest,
- Feeling of an early loss of consciousness.
Also, we should separately consider those symptoms that are characteristic of various types of tachycardia.
Sinus tachycardia: symptoms and treatment
The following symptoms are typical for this type of tachycardia:
- More heartbeat than 90 beats per minute, which occurs at the same time with the right heart rate;
- Feeling of increased fatigue.
Determination of sinus tachycardia is possible in the calculation of the pulse, as well as in the passage of ECG studies. Minor tachycardia may not require treatment. In some cases medications may be prescribed that help slow the heart rate (i.e., beta-blockers). Dosage is determined individually in each case. With the self-administration of such drugs, there may be a slowing of the pulse of a sharp character, and they can also provoke unconsciousness and blockade of the heart.
Atrial tachycardia: symptoms and treatment
This type of tachycardia is also defined as tachycardia supraventricular or supraventricular tachycardia, its source is located in the atria. It is characterized by the following manifestations:
- The increased heart rate, beats per minute can reach up to 140-250;
- In some cases, this type of tachycardia is accompanied by a sense of fear.
This type of manifestation requires an emergency call. Atrial tachycardia, respectively, is eliminated solely with medical intervention, which also involves the preliminary carrying out of a number of studies.
Paroxysmal gastric tachycardia: symptoms and treatment
This type of tachycardia is characterized, based on the name, by the presence of a source located in the ventricles of the heart. Paroxysm begins suddenly, just as suddenly and ends. Duration can be as a few seconds, and several days. There are following manifestations of this type of tachycardia:
- Frequent and strong heartbeat (140-220 beats / min.)
- Weakness of a pronounced character
- Dizziness, tinnitus
- Severity and discomfort that arise beyond the breastbone and in the region of the heart, the feeling of its constriction
- Possible manifestations of autonomic dysfunction (sweating, flatulence, nausea)
- The neurological symptoms of seizures appear somewhat less often
- With prolonged seizure, it is possible to reduce blood pressure, as well as the development of weakness, fainting
- Completion of an attack over the next few hours can occur in polyuria (increased urine production), while urine has a light color and a low density.
Such symptoms require immediate call of an ambulance and the subsequent operative elimination of an attack. As a rule, ventricular tachycardia and its characteristic manifestations are formed against the background of severe heart lesions, such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis, as well as intoxication provoked by one or another medication. Accordingly, this tachycardia is a serious enough threat to human life.
It is possible to distinguish atrial tachycardia from ventricular tachycardia only on the basis of ECG-study. When repeated attacks of tachycardia, appropriate antiarrhythmic therapy is performed, however, the elimination of a tachycardia-provoking disease is determined as the main decision.
Tachycardia during pregnancy: symptoms
In pregnancy, tachycardia at the peak of its manifestations occurs, mainly from the third trimester, that is, from the sixth month. In this case, if we talk about sinus tachycardia, the number of heart beats can increase to 15-20. Accordingly, if a pregnant woman previously had a predisposition to paroxysmal tachycardia, cardiac contractions can reach 130-160, or even 220 beats / min. Additionally, symptoms such as:
- General weakness;
- Occurrence (in some cases) of pain in the heart area
Basically, tachycardia attacks occur, as in other cases, suddenly, just as suddenly ending. Dangerous tachycardia can only seem at first glance. Therefore, if a pregnant woman is facing more seizures, one should not worry — the rapidity of the heartbeat, first of all, allows the future baby to provide the nutritional components that he needs. At the same time, it also receives a sufficient amount of oxygen, which ensures its normal growth and development. Appeal to a specialist is required only when accompanied by tachycardia with nausea (including vomiting), which is a direct evidence of the presence of a heart disease. In other situations, when heart rate is increased, it is enough to lie down for a while and relax.
Tachycardia in children: symptoms
The indicators of the normal heart rate vary from age, meanwhile, even infants are prone to developing tachycardia. The most common among children is tachycardia supraventricular. Its characteristic features are an abnormally rapid reduction in the chambers of the heart. For life, such a tachycardia, as a rule, is not of a threatening nature, in some cases medical intervention is not even required.
Another, more serious type of tachycardia in children is ventricular tachycardia, which occurs when the blood is pumped too quickly. In children, it is rare, but in the absence of appropriate treatment, it becomes dangerous for their life.
As for the symptoms, tachycardia in children occurs when there are symptoms similar to those in adults, namely:
- The appearance of chest pain
- Heart palpitations
- Shortness of breath;
Infants also have characteristic symptoms that allow to determine a tachycardia, although in general it is quite difficult for lack of descriptions of the children of their sensations. The following are distinguished:
- Increased breathing;
- Increased drowsiness.
Diagnosis and treatment of tachycardia
Manifestations of tachycardia in any of its symptoms listed above determine the subsequent choice of treatment methods. The main ones are such methods:
- A general blood test — the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin, as well as other cells for subsequent detection of diseases (leukemia, anemia, etc.) is specified;
- A blood test for the determination of thyroid hormones, a urine test to determine the adrenaline decomposition products in it
- An electrocardiogram or an electrocardiogram that records electrical impulses characteristic of the heart;
- An electrocardiogram (Holter method), during which cardiac activity is registered during the day
- Echocardiography or ultrasound of the heart — in this case, an assessment is made of the overall performance of the heart muscle, heart valves, heart defects and the presence of signs of certain chronic diseases.
Based on the received data from the use of a specific technique, during the examination and additional studies by the doctor, the appropriate treatment is determined. In this case, first of all, the causes of tachycardia, the age of the patient, as well as the presence of other diseases and concomitant treatment determinants are taken into account. In some cases, special treatment for tachycardia is not required at all — it will be sufficient to determine the causes that provoked it and promptly eliminate them.
As for the specialist, which should be consulted in the presence of the symptoms we listed, then this is the attending physician or cardiologist.