Teniarinhoz (bovine tapeworm): symptoms and treatment
Teniarinhoz is a parasitic disease caused by a helminth like bovine tapeworm. This helminth belongs to the class of tapeworms (chain), to the family Taenia. The final owner of this parasite, as well as the pork thorn and the others, is a person, but for the infection in the body must already get the ripe eggs of this helminth, and the process of their maturation occurs exclusively in the body of cattle. That is, the source of infection is the meat of animals such as cows, calves, bulls, yaks, moose, etc.
Bovine tapeworm, which causes shadowarinhoz, is one of the largest helminths, whose length can reach 12 meters, but often its dimensions do not exceed 6 meters in length, 5 mm in width and 2 mm in thickness.
The body of the helminth consists of proglottids, which number about 2 thousand pieces. His head, which in medical terminology is called scolex, has 4 suckers, by means of which the helminth is attached to the human intestine. The body of the helminth that causes shadowarhynchosis has no cavity, and there is no mouth on the head, therefore it is nourished by absorption of carbohydrates by the proglottid envelope, which are the source of the necessary nutrient components for it.
At the same time, each proglottid is the carrier of female and male sex cells, which allows them to develop eggs inside of which this helminth multiplies. One segment contains up to 150 pieces of fertilized eggs ready for a new life cycle.
If we talk about the life cycle of a helminth like bovine tapeworm, then it represents 4 stages. At the first stage ripe eggs stand out with human feces into the environment. Proglottids can also be allocated, which for a while are able to move along the grass or soil (for wider distribution).
In the second stage, eggs are absorbed by cattle, and under the action of their stomach enzymes their shell is destroyed, allowing the larvae (oncospheres) to spread through blood and other fluids throughout the body.
The third stage of the life cycle of the parasite causing shadowarhynchosis is characterized by the ingress of mature helminth larvae into the muscular tissues of cattle (cattle), and the fourth stage assumes the person’s absorption of the infected meat after Insufficient heat treatment and the development of a new worm in his body. From the moment of infection until the maturation of a mature individual in the human intestine, it takes about 3 months — during this time the worm can already reach several meters and it starts actively extracting new eggs into the environment, repeating the life cycle.
Because in order to become contagious to humans and cause shadowarhinhos, bovine tapeworm must pass its life cycle and settle in the muscles of cattle, then the cause of infection is the use of insufficiently processed meat of these animals.
It bends the bulldozer at a temperature of 80 degrees, so a well-cooked and roasted beef, even if it had larvae of bovine tapeworm, does not pose a danger to humans. The same can be said about the well-frozen meat — the larvae of the bovine tapeworm die within a few days at a temperature of -15 degrees.
That is, based on the foregoing, we can conclude that the path of infection by the bovine food chain.
Most adults are sick, which is due to the peculiarities of their nutrition, and equally pathologies like shadowarhinhoz are susceptible to both men and women. However, there is a certain category of persons who have a professional predisposition to this disease. These are people who constantly deal with cattle — milkmaids, workers of slaughterhouses, meat processing plants, cattle breeders and shepherds.
As already mentioned above, infection with a bull chain occurs only when the full life cycle of its eggs and larvae. Therefore, a man with a shadowyarhoz is not contagious and does not pose a threat to the people around him. At the same time, finding this helminth in the body has a negative effect on many organs and the state of health in general. So, because of the attachment of the worm suckers to the intestine, the body can develop inflammatory processes and disrupt the digestive process as a whole.
A person suffers from a deficiency of nutrients that the helminth sucks out of his body, and sometimes an allergic reaction to the products of the helminth’s life can develop. Also, teniarinhosis is often complicated by pathological processes such as peritonitis resulting from a rupture of the intestinal wall, intestinal obstruction that occurs due to excessive proliferation of the helminth and closure of the intestinal lumen, and other unpleasant consequences.
In most cases, the symptoms of such a pathology as taneyarhoz are not diagnosed. The patient can complain of general weakness, impaired appetite, weight loss, but he does not have any visible clinical manifestations. In this case, bovine tapeworm in humans is diagnosed by blood tests in which eosinophilic leukopenia and anemia are noted, as well as by radiography. Treatment of pathology is prescribed by the doctor depending on the size of the helminth and the patient’s health condition.
Sometimes symptoms, on the contrary, are clearly expressed. Usually this happens in a chronic course of the process, when the bovine tapeworm in a human parasitizes not for one month or even a year.
In the chronic form of the disease, there are 4 syndromes:
Dyspeptic syndrome expresses symptoms such as diarrhea, heartburn, nausea, sometimes vomiting, loosening the stool or developing constipation. With abdominal syndrome, a person complains of such a symptom as pain in the abdomen. Asthenovegetative syndrome characterizes the symptoms of general deterioration of well-being:
- increased fatigue;
- a bad dream, etc.
It also happens that the symptoms are completely absent and a person with a bull chain in the body does not feel any negative changes, and does not seek medical help for a long time. Then the only way to know that he has shadowiarinhoz becomes accidentally seen proglottid in stool — that’s how many people find out they are infected with a bull chain.
Sometimes it happens that the main symptoms are absent, but a person is disturbed by unpleasant sensations in the anus, or he can observe the movement of proglottids on his legs during his wakefulness, which is often extremely unpleasant to surprise.
As already mentioned, the diagnosis of pathology is based on the collection of anamnesis, X-ray examination, taking analyzes and the presence of the fact of the exit of the segments of the bovine tapeworm from the intestine of the patient. Treatment of the disease is not particularly difficult and consists of taking such medications as fenasal, which is used according to a certain scheme proposed by the doctor in charge. In addition, treatment can be carried out and an alternative drug — biltricidum, which is taken once. Under the influence of these medicinal preparations, the helminth dies and is independently excreted from the body with excreta.
The importance of the technique of treatment is given to proper nutrition. It is necessary to abandon some products (beets, legumes, cabbage, grapes, milk, peaches, chocolate, carbonated drinks and others). It is recommended to eat more sour-milk products, lean fish, bread and buckwheat. And the treatment involves eating small meals up to 6 times a day.
You must change your underwear daily. Observation of the excretion of joints with feces is carried out for three months — only after this it is possible to talk about complete cure.
Note that the treatment is done on an outpatient basis. Prevention is necessary to prevent re-infection. In addition, shadeiarhoz is easier to prevent than to treat. Prevention is the qualitative heat treatment of beef before consumption. In addition, prophylaxis for individuals on epidemiological indications should consist of regular examinations and observance of personal hygiene rules. And it is also important to pay attention to your health and, when you have unclear symptoms, go to doctors to identify and eliminate pathology.