Testicle pain Causes

Testicles are external sex organs and located in a special sac which is known as the scrotum. Palpatory one may feel a testicle and its epididymis as well as spermatic cord and some vessels which makes it simple to diagnose various disorders. The testicles should not hurt when palpated. The testicles are of an ellipse form with epididymis and a deferent duct connected to epididymis.

The function of the testicles is to produce male sex hormones and generate sperm for fertilization. If a man experiences pain in the testicle, it indicates some disorder which may lead to dangerous complications. Some conditions may be urgent, so do not think twice why a man has painful testicles and go to a doctor immediately to find out the reasons of your pain. There are several reasons why a man has painful testicles and usually the pain is not the only symptom. Depending on the etiology, the following symptoms may also occur:

  • Local temperature rise;
  • General signs of a fever;
  • Edema;
  • Asymmetry;
  • Enlarged vessels;
  • Enlarged and painful lymphatic nodes.

Traumatic injury

As a result of sharp mechanical trauma in the scrotum area, a man suffers severe pain and he can even fall into a faint.

Among the mechanical causes of painful testicles in men are also chronic injuries caused by inconvenient or too tight underwear. In this case, nagging pain appears when the testicles are palpated.

If a man experiences pain in his right or left testicle after the injury, it is necessary to visit a doctor to avoid negative consequences. The treatment includes the following:

  • Use of analgesics and NSAIDs;
  • Ice application;
  • Bed rest;
  • Elevated position of the scrotum.

In more serious cases, surgical treatment is required.

Inverted testis

Inverted testis can be the cause of painful left testicle. This condition is typical or children or teenagers and the reasons are not yet known. However, among the predisposing factors are male reproductive tract abnormalities and even the abnormalities are minor they affect the vital functions of the system.

In inverted testis pain is sharp and unexpected, painful sensations are severe and very intensive. This is a dangerous condition as nerves and blood vessels are constricted and it may lead to a rapid death of the testicle.

Inverted testis is treated only surgically and operation must be performed shortly after the diagnosis was made. Surgical treatment is necessary to assess testicular viability.


Epididymitis is an inflammation in the epididymis causing pain in the testicles and lower abdomen. This disorder occurs when infectious agent enters the body and it is characterized by a typical clinical presentation. A patient suffers nagging but tolerable pain. This is a unilateral process, it means that only right or left testicle is painful but not both of them. This pathology also tends to progressing and the symptoms of general intoxication appear (fever).

The treatment of epididymitis includes the use of antibacterial drugs to fight the causative agent, analgesics and anti-inflammatory medications (NSAID). In some cases, immunomodulators are prescribed. If there are no complications, the prognosis is favorable. However, if left untreated, there is a greater risk of negative consequences.

Inguinal hernia

Inguinal hernia occurs in men very often and it is accompanied by testicular pain. Its development is explained by the fact that there is a communication between the abdominal cavity and the scrotum as in the antenatal period the testes move down to the scrotum. The inguinal canal resides at the base of the abdomen causing sharp intolerable pain. The hernia also constricts male genitals which is also the cause why men have testicular pain.

The treatment includes surgical interference and manual reduction. If the constriction is observed, it is considered to be an urgent condition requiring only operation.

Men often have relapses, so a doctor must consult a patient and give him detailed recommendations what to do after the treatment.


Orchitis is an inflammation in the testicle. In this condition left or right testicle swells and is painful. The causative agents are viruses (especially, epidemic parotitis) and this is a complicated and dangerous situation because the body develops autoimmune activity to the testicles. That is why, during inflammation the testicle is injured not only due to pathogenic bacteria but also because of immunity cells and initially unilateral process transforms to bilateral.

If a man suffers pain in his right or left testicle, the testicle is enlarged and red, it is necessary to immediately visit a doctor because orchitis can threaten your fertility. The treatment includes bed rest, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics, treatment with ice and elevated position of the scrotum. In advanced conditions, a drainage may be required. Timely treatment ensures full recovery without any complications.

Testicular tumors

A man should always be aware why he has painful testicles during arousal and after sex. Sometimes it is associated with a long-term sexual abstinence but in some cases, it can indicate the presence of tumors.

Testicular tumors can be both malignant and benign but both conditions pose dangers for health and require immediate treatment. Diagnosis poses a particular challenge as painful sensations appear only later and there are no other symptoms.

A man should visit an oncology hospital to receive surgical or drug treatment.


A reason why a man has painful right or left testicle may be hydrocele. Hydrocele is the collection of serous fluid in the scrotum and pain appears when the testicle is constricted or when the fluid is infected. Visually the disorder is detected by enlarged scrotum but most often the pathology does not develop any clinical symptoms. Hydrocele is the reason why children and teenagers have testicular pain.

As a rule, no treatment is required as hydrocele disappears itself but a continuous medical control is required to monitor the dynamic of the disease. If the condition is aggravated or there are no improvements, Von Bergmann’s or Winkelmann’s surgical procedure is performed.


Varicocele is abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum. Usually, it is located on the left side. The enlarged vessel can even completely constrict arterial blood supply and the testicle. Varicocele affects boys and young men and requires immediate treatment. The pain is nagging and continuous.

To treat the disease, surgical interference is required to remove or ligate the affected veins. After the operation, the blood supply and testicle functions are restored.