Thrombocytopathy: symptoms and treatment
Thrombocytopathy is a disease of the hemostasis system, characterized by a qualitative inferiority of platelets with sufficient quantity in the blood. The disease occurs quite often, and mainly in childhood. Since the treatment of pathology is symptomatic, a person suffers from it all his life. According to the ICD 10, the code for this pathology is D69.1, except for one of the variants, Willebrand’s disease, which is code D68.0 for ICD 10.
Thrombocytopathy has severe symptoms, characterized by increased bleeding and the appearance of specific hemorrhagic eruptions on the body. Therefore, the diagnosis of the disease is usually not difficult, nevertheless it is important to identify the disease in a timely manner so that the child does not become a cause of serious complications. In particular, in cases of cerebral hemorrhage, the prognosis of the disease becomes unfavorable, although in the usual course of the pathology pathology, doctors can significantly alleviate the child’s life and improve its quality.
In medical practice, two forms of the disease are distinguished: hereditary thrombocytopathy and symptomatic (or acquired). It is hereditary factors in the majority of which are responsible for the development of the disease in the child (up to 60% of all cases of morbidity).
In the risk group are people who have a family history of this pathology. Therefore it is very important in the planning of pregnancy to visit the hematologist to find out about possible problems with the blood of a future child and be ready to prevent them. The main cause of hereditary pathologies is the defect of genes, and this pathology is inherited both by the dominant and recessive type, because of which the probability of its spread is large and the hereditary factor plays a dominant role in this.
There are several forms of hereditary pathology, one of them is disaggregation thrombocytopathy, which is characterized by poor blood coagulability. To the development of this disturbance, too, are mainly hereditary factors. Typically, with such a pathology, girls encounter in adolescence, when for unknown reasons they have prolonged bleeding from the uterus, not associated with the monthly cycle.
Among other forms:
- forms with a predominant disruption of adhesion of platelets to collagen
- complex platelet anomalies and dysfunctions, combined with other genetic defects
- forms with a deficit and a reduced availability factor;
- Unidentified forms.
If we talk about the acquired form of the disease, then it is a consequence of various diseases of internal organs, for example:
- kidney or liver disease;
- malignant tumors
- Vitamin B12 deficiency;
- Radiation sickness and some other pathological conditions.
In addition, often from pathology people suffer, in the diet of which there are not enough animal proteins and vitamins. So, one of the categories of people, most often the others suffering from thrombocytopathy, are people who refused to eat meat.
There are factors that can increase the symptoms of the disease. These are:
- alcohol use
- treatment with blood thinning drugs
- prolonged and frequent exposure to the sun
- some physiotherapy procedures;
- eating a large amount of vinegar and food on its basis.
Clinical manifestations of a hereditary disease in a child often provoke viral or bacterial infections, birth trauma, physiotherapy procedures, such as massage. Also, the manifestation of the clinic is facilitated by sepsis, hypovitaminosis, grafting and some other factors.
The main symptom of the pathology is expressed and recurrent hemorrhagic syndrome, which is manifested by the presence on the body and limbs of the child of petechial or ecchymosis eruptions. Such rashes appear not just so, but in traumatizing the skin, and the traumatizing effect can be even insignificant — for example, when the skin contacts the clothing of coarse tissue, with minor injuries. Hemorrhages with a pathology such as thrombocytopathy, differ from those that occur with hemophilia. And most importantly their difference lies in the absence of hemorrhages in the intermuscular and interarticulate spaces.
Other symptoms of the disease are also associated with impaired quality of platelets, and, hence, increased bleeding. These are:
- bleeding gums;
- spontaneous bleeding from the nasal passages;
- prolonged healing of even minor wounds
- umbilical cord bleeding in newborns
- bleeding from the genital tract in adolescent girls who are not related to menstruation
There are fewer hemorrhages in the sclera of the eye, gastrointestinal bleeding and the appearance of blood in the urine.
People suffering from such a violation of hemopoiesis as thrombocytopathy, hard to tolerate any surgical intervention, because after them for a long time doctors can not stop the blood. In particular, even with the removal of the tooth, a person with thrombocytopathy may be confronted with the fact that the remaining wound will bleed for a long time, making it uncomfortable.
In addition, prolonged and frequent bleeding, although of a minor nature, however, affect a person’s well-being, causing him anemic syndrome, which is characterized by:
- pallor of the skin and mucous membranes
- falling blood pressure
- tachycardia and even frequent loss of consciousness.
Diagnosis and treatment
In order to confirm the presence of a child’s pathology, a thorough diagnosis is necessary, which consists of collecting a personal and family history of the patient, a survey that allows you to find out all the symptoms of the disease, as well as conducting laboratory studies.
Diagnosis of thrombocytopathy involves carrying out functional endothelial tests, in which characteristic bruises appear on the patient’s skin. For example, it is a test with a tourniquet or a usual pinch test, in which, by acting on a certain part of the body, the doctor sees the formation of hematomas.
Diagnosis with the help of laboratory tests requires a coagulogram, a biochemical blood test, a platelet count and a study of the morphological characteristics of platelets.
If we talk about the treatment of thrombocytopathy, then in most cases it is divided into two categories — emergency care for the development of extensive hemorrhagic syndrome and the prevention of relapses. If thrombocytopathy is detected in young children, they will have to spend the rest of their lives under the supervision of a doctor, refuse to eat certain foods and take medications that help to coagulate blood. In particular, the diet of such a child should be rich in vitamins A, C and P, and from the use of conservation and other dishes with vinegar will have to be abandoned, as well as from the use of any alcoholic beverages in the future.
Among the drugs that are used to treat pathology, allocate haemostatic drugs and drugs of metabolic action. A chilled solution of aminocaproic acid is also used to stop bleeding from wounds.
In those cases when it comes to symptomatic thrombocytopathy caused by a particular disease, all efforts should be directed to treatment of the underlying cause that caused hematopoiesis disorders. Transfusion of blood and its components, as well as donor platelets, is used in the treatment of pathology only in extreme cases — when a person lost a large amount of blood or after serious surgical interventions. In other cases, this will not only not improve the patient’s condition, but may also harm him.