Thrombophilia: Symptoms and Treatment


Thrombophilia is a disease of the blood system that is characterized by impaired hemostasis, and a tendency to form blood clots. The main manifestations of the disease are numerous and recurrent thromboses in certain parts of the circulatory system. Usually they begin to progress after a strong physical strain, after a trauma of varying severity, surgical intervention, or during childbearing (a thrombophilia during pregnancy is not uncommon).

If you start this condition and do not begin to treat it, then later myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis, stroke, kidney infarction, pulmonary embolism may be possible. These conditions often cause the death of the patient.

Thrombophilia is a fairly common pathology. Medical statistics are such that it is diagnosed in 40% of the adult population. The risk of formation of thromboses increases due to an unfavorable ecological situation, hypodynamia, the presence of chronic pathologies in humans. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease is handled by a phlebologist.

Etiology

All the etiological factors that trigger the progression of thrombophilia are divided into primary and secondary.

Hereditary or genetic thrombophilia progresses in a person who has a genetic predisposition to it (transmitted at the genetic level).

The following states can activate the disease:


  • Protein deficiency with hereditary type. This substance is a natural anticoagulant. If the body breaks its synthesis, it will lead to increased thrombosis;
  • V clotting factor. This pathology to a certain extent slows the physiological process of blood clotting, so often leads to the progression of thrombophilia
  • The deterministic shortage of antithrombin (genetic). This substance is also an anticoagulant (analogue of protein C). It is worth noting that his deficit can be both congenital and acquired;
  • combined hereditary thrombophilia. In this case, a person inherits several genes at once, which are «provocateurs» of thrombophilia.

Secondary thrombophilia in humans develops against the background of already existing pathologies in the body:


  1. thrombocytosis
  2. Erythremia
  3. malignant tumors
  4. antiphospholipid syndrome
  5. autoimmune pathologies

Classification


  • Vascular thrombophilia. Pathology usually develops against a backdrop of ailments that damage the veins and capillaries. These include atherosclerosis, vasculitis and others;
  • hematogenous. Pathologies in the coagulation system lead to its progression. This form is the most dangerous, because as it develops the viscosity and fluidity of the blood changes. Its increased condensation can provoke thromboses, medium and large-caliber embolism, ischemia and infarction
  • hypodynamic. It is diagnosed in violation of the contractility of blood vessels of different calibers.

Symptoms

Symptoms of the disease manifest gradually. It is worth noting that often they are so weakly show themselves that a person does not pay attention to them at all and does not go to the doctor. Symptoms of the pathology directly depend on where the blood clot formed in the blood clot and to what extent the blood flow in this place is violated, and also whether the patient has background somatic diseases.

The main symptom that indicates the progression of the ailment is a painful sensation at the site of the thrombus localization (arms, legs, etc.), as well as an increasing puffiness. In case of diagnosis of vein thrombosis, a dangerous complication often develops, which can lead to a fatal outcome — pulmonary embolism.

If the disease affected the lungs, then the following symptoms appear:


  1. feeling of raspiraniya in the chest
  2. painful syndrome in the sternum
  3. The patient complains of difficulty breathing and the appearance of dyspnea during normal physical exertion

In malignant course of the pathology, the following symptoms can be observed:


  • tissue necrosis
  • gangrene of the limbs;
  • hemorrhagic purpura

Thrombophilia and childbearing

Thrombophilia during pregnancy often manifests itself. There are two reasons for this:


  1. an additional load on the future mother’s organism is provided by another formed circle of blood circulation — placental
  2. During the gestation of the child in the woman’s body, the mechanism for increasing the clotting capacity of the blood is «triggered». The main goal of this process is to reduce the risk of possible blood loss.

Women with thrombophilia should be under the constant supervision of a doctor, if necessary, to undergo a course of treatment, as this condition can provoke miscarriage, intrauterine growth disorders of the fetus.





Diagnostics


  • blood sampling for detecting thrombophilia
  • Vascular ultrasound;
  • contrast arteriography is a technique that allows physicians to assess the permeability of vessels of different calibers
  • venography
  • X-ray;
  • radioisotope study
  • genetic factor analysis of polymorphisms

Treatment

Several doctors are engaged in the treatment of pathology — phlebologist, hematologist and vascular surgeon. It is important to first identify the true cause of the progression of the disease. The most effective treatment will be only if the root cause is eliminated.

Usually, firstly, doctors resort to therapeutic methods of treatment.

Medication therapy includes such drugs:


  1. anticoagulants
  2. Disaggregants.

It is also often resorted to medical bleeding, haemodulation, transfusion of freshly frozen plasma.

It is important during the treatment to adhere to a special diet. In this case, the effectiveness of therapy increases several times. From the diet completely excluded products that contain a lot of cholesterol. It is also forbidden to eat fatty and fried foods. In the patient’s menu with thrombophilia, vegetables, fruits, fresh herbs and dried fruits must be present.

In the mild form of the disease, treatment is carried out by intravenous injection of lyophilized plasma, as well as dry donor blood. In severe form, the course of treatment includes fibrinolytic drugs. They are injected directly into the place where the embolus has occluded the blood vessel.

The treatment plan is developed strictly for each individual patient. To normalize blood circulation, doctors recommend:


  • more likely to walk on the open air
  • self-massage
  • herbal medicine
  • practice gymnastics;
  • go swimming.

Folk remedies

Folk remedies for the treatment of thrombophilia are used only in tandem with drug therapy. The most effective tools:


  1. cranberry tea
  2. grape juice
  3. tea from the twill;
  4. garlic;
  5. infusion of clover,
  6. Horse chestnut tincture
  7. Japanese Sophora seed tincture

Complications


  • as a result of thrombosis of the blood vessels of the brain, in the body there may be the appearance of sites with ischemia. Also, strokes and hemorrhages are not excluded;
  • bowel necrosis
  • Peritonitis
  • myocardial infarction
  • gangrene of the limbs;
  • if there is a thrombosis in the vessels of the placenta, the fetus will die.

Prevention

You can reduce the risk of developing and progressing thrombophilia if you follow the following recommendations:


  1. If you have the first symptoms that indicate a pathology, you should immediately consult a doctor
  2. lead a healthy lifestyle
  3. do not consume alcoholic beverages;
  4. stop smoking;
  5. Normalized physical activities
  6. According to the doctor’s testimony, wear special compression underwear and elastic bandages
  7. monitor the blood pressure level, and also undergo a test to determine the level of bad cholesterol in the blood;
  8. Patients who are predisposed to developing a disease should avoid prolonged stays on the legs, do not lift weights, and also reduce physical exertion
  9. women in the first trimester of pregnancy should necessarily undergo a comprehensive examination.