Thrombosis: Symptoms and Treatment
Thrombosis is a disease during which dense blood clots (clusters of platelets) form inside the blood vessels, interfering with the free circulation of blood throughout the circulatory system. Clogging of blood vessels with thrombi causes unpleasant sensations in the hands or feet (depending on the localization of the thrombus).
Basically, the disease affects the lower parts of the body, so deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities occurs most often, but it should be said that the lack of adequate treatment can subsequently lead to serious disruption of the cardiovascular system, the development of blood diseases or (at full Blockage of one of the vessels) of death.
Etiology of the disease
Having dealt with what a thrombosis is, you can not tell about the most probable causes of its occurrence, which include:
- Violation of the integrity of the vascular wall — occurs against the background of trauma, constriction or deformation of blood vessels during pregnancy and childbirth (as a result of excessive vascular wall pressure, hemorrhoid thrombosis often occurs after childbirth) or due to non-compliance with the doctor’s recommendations after extensive surgical interventions;
- blood circulation stagnation — develops due to sedentary lifestyle or prescribed by the doctor bed rest with illness (venous congestion often causes deep vein thrombosis and development of varicose veins)
- Blood coagulability problems occur because of an increase in the number of platelets and red blood cells that can develop against a background of hormonal imbalance, with metabolic disruptions or when taking oral contraceptives (women who started taking birth control pills without consulting a doctor, Very risky to earn deep vein thrombosis, so self-medication is not recommended to anyone).
In addition to all of the above, the symptoms of thrombosis can disturb people suffering from cancer and kidney disorders.
Species and Symptoms of Disease
Doctors distinguish two forms of development of thrombosis — venous (phlebotrombosis) and arterial, which, in turn, are divided into several subspecies. In addition, there is acute thrombosis and chronic, characterized by a sluggish course with alternations of periods of exacerbation and remission.
With regard to thrombosis of the arteries, it often occurs against the background of blockage of vascular gaps atherosclerotic plaques, for this reason the disease is also called atherothrombosis, and can lead to a heart attack of any organ or brain stroke.
Intestinal form of the disease
Arterial form of the disease includes intestinal thrombosis (or mesenteric thrombosis), which develops against the background of blockage of the superior mesenteric artery. Mostly they suffer from the elderly, with the same frequency found in men and women.
The main causes of thrombosis of mesenteric vessels are cardiac diseases, during which myocardial infarction, endocarditis or atherosclerosis develops. The latter condition is considered one of the most dangerous, since the absence of treatment can lead to the fact that mesenteric thrombosis can develop into embolism and cause the death of the patient.
Thrombosis of the intestine can be recognized by the following features:
- sudden, sometimes paroxysmal, intense pain in the abdomen, the localization of which depends on the vessel in which the thrombus is located (in case the pain is in the right ileal region, intestinal thrombosis must be differentiated from acute appendicitis)
- nausea and vomiting accompanying abdominal pain
- heart palpitations
- a loose stool that can contain bloody blotches (of course, on the basis of only this symptom, thrombosis of the intestine can not be diagnosed, but if it is accompanied by the symptoms described above, then it is necessary to go to the doctor immediately)
- The increased body temperature also indicates the development of thrombosis, the symptoms of the disease appear as it progresses, that is, first the temperature, if it is increased, is not much, but when the thrombus closes the lumen of an artery and the beginning of the necrosis of the intestine, it will begin to rise rapidly
As it develops, intestinal thrombosis will increasingly resemble intestinal obstruction (bloating, severe disruption of peristalsis, vomiting), so that only the doctor can prescribe the appropriate diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Phlebotrombosis and its types
Phlebothrombosis is a disease in which there is a blockage (full or partial) of deep veins (for this reason it is also called deep vein thrombosis). As can be understood from the definition during the development of the disease, the lumen of one or more venous vessels is blocked by a thrombus, which seriously disrupts the operation of the venous system.
Symptoms of the inflammatory process may be absent, but most often phlebothrombosis is accompanied by severe intoxication of the body. Basically, thrombi form in the lower part of the body, so thrombosis of the lower limbs is the most common type of this disease. However, the most dangerous are considered to be flotation thrombi, which are localized mainly in the veins of the pelvis, because they can cause the development of pulmonary thromboembolism, therefore, everyone should know the signs of thrombosis.
The main symptoms that indicate the development of phlebothrombosis in the patient’s body include pain in the thrombus, redness of the skin and small puffiness (depending on the type of the disease, the symptoms may vary).
Defeat of deep veins of lower limbs
It should be immediately said that deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities is considered quite a serious disease, which often occurs asymptomatically and is accompanied by all sorts of complications. In general, the disease is accompanied by pain in the thrombus-affected limb (in fact, if you list the most likely signs of thrombosis, the pain syndrome will be the first in the diagnosis of the disease), the intensity of which increases with prolonged walking or climbing the ladder. Subsequently, patients begin to complain of feelings of raspiraniya in the legs, swelling and discoloration of the skin (thrombosis of the veins of the lower limbs causes a cyanotic skin tone).
Specialists also diagnose phlebothrombosis due to the emergence of pulling pains in the inner side of the thighs (less often the stop), the appearance of pain syndrome in the limb at a pressure of 80-100 mm Hg (when the vessels are clean, the pain does not arise even if catching up Pressure up to 150 units), visual expansion of superficial veins.
Symptoms of occlusion of the veins of the hemorrhoids
Talking about deep vein thrombosis, one can not help recalling the thrombus damage of hemorrhoids that occur after pregnancy, childbirth, with prolonged hypothermia, as a result of constipation or playing sports (lifting dumbbells, horse riding). The thrombosis of the external hemorrhoidal junction develops with the rupture of the vessels of the perinatal area and is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- pain, itching and burning in the anal area, increasing with defecation or prolonged walking
- swelling in the anal region, spasm and soreness of the sphincter
- very often phlebothrombosis of hemorrhoids is accompanied by the prolapse of venous vessels to the outside with a subsequent rupture, which threatens to get the infection into the blood and general intoxication of the body, therefore, it is not necessary to delay this treatment.
In addition to all of the above, deep vein thrombosis is divided into another separate subspecies of the disease — ileofemoral thrombosis. This disease is characterized by the defeat of large vessels in the region of the iliac and femoral veins, the complete blockage of which can lead to the fatal outcome of the disease. Ileofemoral phlebothrombosis develops acutely — the patient begins to be troubled by a complete edema of the affected limb (from the groin to the foot), cyanotic skin and an increase in body temperature. With complete obstruction of the vessels, gangrene may begin, and if blood circulation remains at least in a small amount, the symptoms of thrombosis gradually regress.
The disease develops on the background of injuries or malignant formations in the pelvic organs and requires immediate treatment. It should be remembered that even with the slightest suspicion of ileofemoral thrombosis, the patient is prescribed a bed rest, and doctors are engaged in treatment in the conditions of an angiosurgical hospital (if conservative therapy does not help, then the specialists do the operation).
Cavicular sinus occlusion
One of the most dangerous varieties of this disease is thrombosis of the cavernous sinus, which is accompanied by the formation of a thrombus at the base of the large vein of the brain. Clogging of the vessels, as a rule, occurs against the background of an infectious inflammatory process in the eye and nose that spreads to the brain. A person suffers from severe headaches, seizures and bulges his eyes. In addition, patients with severe nervous system disorders or a sharp increase in body temperature, and the lack of adequate treatment can lead to the development of coma (folk medicine in this case will not help, for help, you need to see a doctor).
Deep vein thrombosis is diagnosed by invasive and non-invasive research methods, which include:
- phlebography ascending using contrast medium (the most accurate method of analysis)
- Duplex scanning of vessels by ultrasound (most often the diagnosis of phlebothrombosis is posed after such an investigation);
- Thromboelastography (graphical fixation of blood clotting and fibrinolysis processes)
- radionuclide scanning.
Mesenterial phlebotrombosis is diagnosed with a chest x-ray, a clinical blood test (for increased leukocytosis), and, in the most severe cases, by performing laparoscopy, and cavernous sinus thrombosis can be seen on a computer thermogram.
Prevention and treatment of disease
Effective treatment of thrombosis should be complex and consist of drug therapy (prescribed by a doctor), the use of traditional medicine, minimally invasive medicinal techniques and in some cases, surgical intervention.
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is used for the prevention of thrombosis and ischemic illness for several decades, however, its prolonged administration can lead to problems on the part of the gastrointestinal tract, such as heartburn, gastritis, nausea, stomach pains, etc. . To reduce the risk of such undesirable consequences, it is necessary to take funds in a special enteric coating. For example, you can use the drug «Trombo ACC®», each tablet is covered with an enteric film coating, resistant to the action of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and dissolving only in the intestine. This avoids direct contact with the gastric mucosa and reduces the risk of heartburn, ulcers, gastritis, bleeding, etc.
The treatment of thrombosis is initially carried out in a hospital, while the first few days (as long as the doctors conduct all necessary studies) the patient is prescribed bed rest and is not allowed to perform any thermal procedures (they can lead to a clot and a deterioration of the patient’s health). Therapy with folk remedies at this stage is also undesirable.
Inpatient treatment for thrombosis begins with intravenous heparin, a natural anticoagulant that prevents the growth of a blood clot that has already formed and dilutes the blood. The course of treatment lasts seven days, after which the patient is assigned direct-acting anticoagulants (Warfarin) and nicotinic acid (dissolves blood clots). Therapy can last from 6 to 8 months.
Surgical treatment of thrombosis is prescribed in especially severe cases, when there is a possibility of development of necrosis, gangrene or rupture of the thrombus.
As for the treatment of folk remedies, they can be used in case of sluggish nature of the disease as an adjunct to drug therapy. Especially popular is the reception of herbal decoctions, the treatment of honey or foot baths, cooked on the basis of the root of the cinquefoil. Medicines must be taken within six months, otherwise they will not give any effect.
Prevention of thrombosis consists in the periodic administration of heparin (in order to avoid bleeding, the dose of the medicine is prescribed by the doctor), regular consumption of traditional medicine (a good effect is produced by the decoction of nettle and acacia tincture).
Any disease is easier to prevent than treat, so prevention of thrombosis plays a very important role in the life of each person. In any case, both the treatment and prevention of the disease should be handled by a doctor, self-medication can only harm the health and aggravate the condition of blood vessels.