Toxicosis in pregnancy: symptoms and treatment

Toxicosis in pregnancy — the degree of intoxication of the body, which is due to the development of exogenous toxins. This pathological process refers to toxicosis of internal origin. However, it should be noted that this degree of intoxication of the body is not always observed during pregnancy. Everything depends on the individual characteristics of the woman’s body.


The exact etiological cause of why there is toxicosis, no. However, as medical practice shows, most often toxicosis during pregnancy can provoke the following etiological reasons:

  • genetic predisposition
  • insufficient amount of vitamins in the body
  • changes in the hormonal background
  • development of neuroses in pregnancy
  • metabolic disorders.

It should also be noted the reasons that can become a catalyst for this process, in the presence of the above-described etiological factors:

  1. Previously reproductive system diseases
  2. weak immune system
  3. concomitant ailments of an endocrine nature
  4. frequent stress, nerve stress
  5. diseases of the nervous system
  6. Unbalanced meals
  7. defective sleep.

The most common toxemia during pregnancy occurs in the first trimester, in the first weeks of pregnancy.


For a period of development, clinicians note an early and late form of toxicosis. Late toxicosis during pregnancy occurs, as a rule, in the last trimester of pregnancy and ends 3-4 weeks before the onset of labor. It should be noted that the late form of toxicosis, in the absence of correct medical care, can lead to the development of serious complications. Toxicosis in the early stages of pregnancy develops, usually from 12 weeks after conception and can last until the onset of labor.

By severity, there are three forms of this pathological process:

  • mild — mild nausea in the morning, vomiting no more than five times a day, complications do not cause;
  • Medium — nausea is almost constant, vomiting can go up to 10 times a day
  • Severe — vomiting is almost constant, medical intervention is required, as strong dehydration of the organism occurs.

It should be noted that the symptoms of severe form of toxicosis are most often observed in women who have previously suffered diseases related to the kidneys, liver and have gastrointestinal problems.

General Symptoms

Symptoms of a mild form of toxicosis in the early stages of pregnancy — this is quite normal manifestation of this biological process. Early toxicosis of pregnant women manifests itself in the form of such symptoms:

  1. nausea (especially in the morning)
  2. vomiting;
  3. changing food preferences
  4. acute reaction to food smells
  5. unstable blood pressure;
  6. headache;
  7. drowsiness.

Early toxicosis of pregnant women does not pose a significant threat to the health of mother and baby and, as a rule, lasts no more than two months.

Toxicosis in late pregnancy (third trimester) can manifest itself as the following symptoms:

  • swelling on the legs
  • high blood pressure;
  • almost total lack of appetite
  • frequent vomiting.

This state of the pregnant woman in the third trimester can last until the last week of bearing the baby.


The pathological condition of this type in pregnancy does not require an extensive diagnostic program. During the personal examination, the doctor must pay attention to the history of the pregnant woman and her way of life, the onset of the development of symptoms, on what week the manifestation of the clinical picture began, how many times a day the pregnant woman has vomiting. If necessary, to determine the reasons for the development of the process, such diagnostic procedures can be assigned:

  1. general and biochemical blood test
  2. a general urine test
  3. Allergen test

The final diagnosis and the cause of the development of this condition can be determined only after examination and receiving the results of the survey.

It is impossible to unequivocally answer the question — when toxemia begins during pregnancy and how long it will last. In some cases, it can last no longer than one week in the first or third trimester and is without complications. It is also not uncommon for cases when such a state does not last long and ends only before the onset of labor.


Treatment of this process with a medicamentous method is appropriate only when a pregnant woman is diagnosed with a severe form of toxicosis. In this case, hospitalization is necessary. Especially when it comes to the manifestation of toxicosis in the last trimester — dehydration of the body is fraught with consequences not only for the mother, but also for the child.

The standard program of therapy in this case means taking the following medicinal substances:

  • antiemetics
  • Vitamin B6;
  • no-spade.

Typically, this therapy helps to quickly improve the condition of a pregnant woman, and toxicosis ends quickly.

In addition to drug treatment should also comply with such recommendations:

  1. avoid a sharp rise in bed in the morning;
  2. Mineral water without gas is good for morning sickness
  3. the food should be fractional, every 2-3 hours;
  4. vomiting will help to remove the chewing reflex
  5. at the heart of the diet should only be light foods rich in vitamin B6;
  6. After eating you need to lie for at least 30 minutes;
  7. the room must be regularly ventilated;
  8. the rest of the pregnant woman must be full.

Compliance with this regime helps if you do not completely get rid of the symptoms of toxemia, then significantly alleviate the condition of the pregnant woman. However, even with all the recommendations of the doctor, it is impossible to say exactly how long the toxicosis will last. The development of this process is purely individual.