Toxoplasmosis: Symptoms and Treatment
Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by TORCH infection. This disease is very dangerous during pregnancy, since infections can be transmitted in utero. Symptoms of toxoplasmosis can be very diverse: fever, fatigue, rashes on the body, chills and others.
Causes of the appearance of an illness
The infection with toxoplasmosis in humans can occur from pets, usually from cats. It is extremely dangerous for women to be infected at the moment of bearing a child, so they should not be in contact with cats.
You can buy the disease by eating meat products, eggs from infected animals that did not undergo the necessary heat treatment. Toxoplasmosis can penetrate human blood through damaged skin or transmitted by bloodsucking insects. There are also cases of intrauterine infection.
The main factors for the onset of toxoplasmosis are:
- Touching dirty hands with the mouth after contacting the ground, after cleaning the cat’s toilet.
- Eating raw or not-cooked meat (pork, venison or lamb meat) in food
- Touching your mouth after contacting raw or unprocessed meat
- Blood transfusion or organ transplant
Signs and symptoms of the disease
According to the clinical manifestation in medicine, the disease is divided into acute, chronic and latent forms. In most cases, people have toxoplasmosis in a chronic or latent form, with no symptoms. The acute form of acquired toxoplasmosis is very rare, only in 0.3% of patients. It should be understood that the acute form of toxoplasmosis, characterized by vivid manifestations, in most cases affects people with very weak immunity. As a rule, these people are in control; Other diseases that sharply reduce immunity. These diseases include: HIV infection, a variety of oncological and viral diseases.
On the course of the disease can affect and transferred chemotherapy and organ transplantation, because these procedures dramatically reduce the human immunity. In such situations, not only the acute course of the acquired infection, but also the aggravation of the old one can be observed. Under normal operation of the immune system, the human body very quickly produces antibodies to toxoplasmosis, and also creates lifelong immunity to the disease.
Symptoms of toxoplasmosis are characterized by their diversity. Although toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases, it is difficult to determine a clear symptomatology of the disease. The reason is that toxoplasma with blood spread into the human body is spread all over the body and affects the organs. In this situation, the symptoms of toxoplasmosis depend on which organ was affected by the infection. Also, the signs of the disease can differ significantly when there is congenital or acquired toxoplasmosis.
Symptoms of congenital toxoplasmosis
Congenital toxoplasmosis in most cases is very difficult. In the generalized course of the acute phase of congenital toxoplasmosis, damage is inflicted on all organs and systems, therefore symptoms of a common body damage appear. Congenital toxoplasmosis has the following symptoms:
- Increase in temperature;
- Occurrence of chills, lethargy
- Jaundice may occur;
- Liver and spleen enlargement
- The appearance of a rash
- Decreased muscle tone
When the flow of inflammatory processes caused by toxoplasmosis affects not all organs at the same time, but inflicts damage only on individual systems of the body, the signs of toxoplasmosis are as follows:
- hydrocephalus, or dropsy of the brain
- Visual impairment
Symptoms of acquired toxoplasmosis
If we talk about acquired acute toxoplasmosis, then its signs can also be different. In most cases, acute acquired toxoplasmosis develops gradually after the incubation period. It lasts from 5 to 23 days. Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in acute acquired form are as follows:
- Increased temperature;
- Decreased performance
- Chills, weakness
- A minor headache;
- Joint and muscle pain
- Enlarged cervical lymph nodes;
- Supraclavicular, axillary, inguinal or subclavian lymph nodes rarely increase;
- Increase baking in size
- Development of pneumonia
- Defeat of the brain;
- Affection of the inner shell of the heart
- Inflammatory process in the retina and choroid of the eye.
Acquired chronic toxoplasmosis begins to appear after 2-3 weeks after infection. This form of toxoplasmosis is considered the most common. It can latent or with minor signs flow in patients for many years. Symptoms of chronic toxoplasmosis are presented in the form:
- a slight increase in temperature;
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- lesions of the central nervous system
- memory impairment
- low interest in the environment
- sleep and appetite disorders;
- the emergence of various fears and obsessions.
Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in children
It should be noted immediately that if a small amount of toxoplasmosis enters the body in a child, its immune system is able to cope with parasites on its own, they become covered and become harmless. Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in children are usually erased, complications are extremely rare.
Totally different toxoxplasmosis occurs in children in acute form. There are the following symptoms of toxoplasmosis in children:
- temperature increase;
- disruption of the liver and spleen, resulting in the occurrence of jaundice
- general weakness, fever, drowsiness;
- rash appearance
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- visual impairment
Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a great danger to the fetus. After all, the infection can be transmitted in utero. In pregnant women, the symptoms of toxoplasmosis are as follows:
- feeling tired;
- temperature increase;
- enlarged lymph nodes
- joint and muscle pain.
In the event that the symptoms appear, the pregnant woman should immediately seek help from a doctor. Taking into account the results of the tests, specialists either prescribe treatment, or recommend the termination of pregnancy.
Diagnosis of the disease is a thorough clinical examination of the patient’s body. For these purposes, serological tests are performed and allergens are taken. The serological study includes:
- Compliment linking reaction
- passive hemagglutination
- indirect immunofluorescence
- intradermal tests with toxoplasmin
In addition, the clinical and bacteriological analysis of the blood for toxoplasmosis is mandatory.
Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis necessarily involves examination of the fundus in the office of an ophthalmologist. A mandatory method of diagnosis is the radiography of the skull of the head and muscles, an electrocardiogram.
Treatment of toxoplasmosis is mandatory in a steady state. Patients prescribed the following drugs: sulfonamides in combination with pyrimethamine and chloride, as well as prescribe medications tetracycline group, antiallergic drugs, vitamin complexes.
The need for therapy and the choice of medication for treatment can only be determined by a doctor. Therapeutic measures to eliminate toxoplasmosis are not carried out by everyone. This should be done only in the case of severe signs of illness in children and weakened adults.
It is extremely rare to cure chronic toxoplasmosis. Here, in addition to antibacterial drugs use medicines that strengthen immunity. In the case of primary toxoplasmosis in early pregnancy, a woman is recommended to have an abortion.
To avoid this ailment, you must follow simple rules:
- Pregnant women need to limit contact with land and other objects where feces of cats can be observed.
- Home cats do not need to feed raw meat and rodents to avoid infection.
- Carry out the necessary heat treatment of meat, wash fruits and vegetables, as well as kitchen surfaces after contacting meat, fruits and vegetables.
Toxoplasmosis & ndash; An unpleasant and dangerous disease that arises from the penetration of infection into the body. Such a disease requires free treatment to eliminate the unpleasant and painful manifestations of the disease as soon as possible.