Tracheobronchitis: symptoms and treatment


Tracheitis and bronchitis are often interrelated, merging into one pathological state — tracheobronchitis. This is an ailment, as a result of which the inflammatory process covers the trachea and bronchi. According to the ICD-10, the disease has code J06-J21. Cure it fully only possible in a hospital. Self-medication with the help of folk remedies (without doctor’s appointment) is unacceptable.

Reasons

The main cause of development of tracheobronchitis in humans is infection. The development of the disease is provoked by the following microorganisms:


  • Streptococci
  • Adenoviruses
  • pseudomonad
  • Staphylococci
  • Mycoplasma
  • rhinovirus and others.

Bacterial tracheobronchitis, as a rule, is not a primary ailment. Usually, it begins to progress against the background of the already existing viral pathology in the body. The main route of infection with tracheobronchitis is bronchogenic, aerogenic. This, in turn, indicates that the patient is contagious to the people around him.

Non-infectious causes of the development of the disease:


  1. vitamin deficiency;
  2. hypothermia
  3. persistent stressful situations
  4. deficit of sunlight;
  5. Inadequate and unreasonable meals
  6. smoking;
  7. the unfavorable ecological situation in the place of residence of the person
  8. heredity;
  9. chronic pathology of the respiratory system;
  10. overwork.

Forms


  • acute tracheobronchitis. This form of the disease lasts for 10 days. During this entire period the patient is contagious to others, so it must be isolated. For acute tracheobronchitis, an extensive inflammation of the mucosa of the trachea and throat is characteristic;
  • a protracted form of tracheobronchitis. About the development of this pathology speak in the event that the symptoms of the disease do not disappear during the month
  • Chronic tracheobronchitis. Duration of the disease is more than 3 months. Often this pathology is diagnosed in people who are too addicted to smoking. Together with chronic tracheobronchitis, other pathologies of the respiratory tract can develop;
  • allergic tracheobronchitis. This form is progressing because of the penetration of various allergens into the human body. Its feature is that the patient’s condition does not deteriorate, but there is a rapid manifestation of symptoms: hoarse voice, severe itching, coughing. Allergic tracheobronchitis is more susceptible to people who live in adverse areas where there are many toxic substances in the atmosphere;
  • infectious-allergic tracheobronchitis. In this case, the allergic form of the pathology begins to progress against the background of the infectious.

Symptoms

Each form of pathology has its own characteristic symptoms. The degree of their severity depends on the severity of the pathological process in humans.

Symptoms of acute tracheobronchitis:


  1. A strong dry cough is the main symptom of progression of the pathology
  2. dysphonia;
  3. hoarseness;
  4. breathing becomes harsh, noisy and wheezing
  5. fever;
  6. dry mouth
  7. it is difficult for a patient to take a full deep breath as well as exhale
  8. the lips may have a bluish tint;
  9. the chest may be sore, tending to increase during coughing
  10. mucopurulent phlegm clears throat.

With the progression of acute tracheobronchitis, it is necessary to consult a qualified physician as soon as possible in order to diagnose and prescribe adequate treatment. If to delay, that is the risk of development of dangerous complications and transition of an ailment to the chronic form.

Signs of the development of allergic tracheobronchitis:


  • apathy;
  • low-grade fever;
  • chest pain, which is worse after a cough
  • Lack of appetite
  • dry cough.

This form of pathology has one characteristic feature — once the allergen is eliminated, all inflammatory symptoms completely disappear.

Chronic tracheobronchitis is characterized by a more calm and easy flow. Signs of the development of pathology:


  1. «hoarse» voice. In some cases, patients may also develop acute laryngotraheobronchitis;
  2. wheezing
  3. Insomnia
  4. shortness of breath;
  5. paroxysmal cough
  6. In the mornings, mucopurulent sputum is released when coughing occurs

Tracheobronchitis in children

The main reasons that trigger the development of tracheobronchitis in children include the following:


  • diabetes;
  • ARVI
  • Dystrophy;
  • dysplasia of the tonsils.

Symptoms of tracheobronchitis in children:


  1. Stridor
  2. temperature increase;
  3. development on the background of tracheobronchitis laryngitis
  4. malaise
  5. the voice becomes hoarse
  6. tachypnoe
  7. rales in the lungs;
  8. paroxysmal convulsive cough

Treat tracheobronchitis in children only in a stationary setting with the use of medicines, inhalations and exercise therapy. Sometimes doctors prescribe additional folk remedies.





Tracheal bronchitis in pregnancy

Most often the viral type of pathology develops during pregnancy. As a rule, it begins to progress against the background of ARI, tonsillitis or pharyngitis. It is worth noting that the viral type during pregnancy is a threat to the health and life of the child, so when it progresses, the treatment should be started as soon as possible.

The bacterial type is also very dangerous. Here the reason is that during pregnancy there is no possibility to conduct antibiotic treatment, as it is possible to harm the fetus. But until the scientists have developed another effective method that would help to eliminate the bacterial infection. Antibiotics are the only effective technique.

During pregnancy, a woman should strictly adhere to the main recommendations for the prevention of this ailment. It is necessary to avoid mass gathering of people, to limit contacts with sick people, not to supercool. It is also important to eat right during pregnancy.

Diagnostics

Tracheobronchitis in children and adults, as well as in pregnancy is a very dangerous pathology, which requires a full diagnosis and adequate treatment. At the reception the doctor examines the patient, conducts percussion and auscultation of the lungs, and also sends it to the lung X-ray. This is necessary to exclude pneumonia.

Additional survey methods:


  • Bronchoscopy
  • sputum analysis.

Treatment

You can begin to treat the disease only after the diagnosis. The first stage of treatment is etiotropic therapy. The patient is prescribed antiviral or antibacterial drugs. Only after this start to carry out symptomatic therapy. The patient is necessarily shown a bed rest and a plentiful drink.

For the treatment of tracheobronchitis, such drugs are used:


  1. Antivirus;
  2. antipyretic
  3. antibiotics
  4. immunomodulators
  5. expectorant drugs
  6. antihistamines
  7. Multivitamins.

Non-drug therapy

Non-drug treatment of tracheobronchitis includes inhalations, massage, foot baths, therapeutic exercise. The most effective treatment is inhalation. They can be carried to people of any age and even to children. Inhalations are carried out both in a hospital, at home — use inhalers or nebulizers. Inhalations help to quickly eliminate the ailment, because during their dispersal small particles of medicinal substances that the patient inhales are sprayed. They penetrate deeply into the bronchi, positively affecting them. It is worth noting that inhalations are carried out even by pregnant women. Sometimes oxygen therapy is carried out — oxygen inhalation.

Traditional medicine

Tracheobronchitis can be treated with folk remedies. But they should not be used independently, but in tandem with drug therapy. In folk medicine, I widely use decoctions, infusions. They are used either orally, and as a means for gargling and inhalation:


  • honey and aloe juice
  • infusion of leaves of mint, plantain and elderberry flowers (effective folk remedy)
  • ginger tea;
  • Badger fat;
  • decoction of limes.