Tuberculous meningitis: symptoms and treatment


Tuberculous meningitis is an inflammation of the soft shell of the brain. In most cases, the disease is a complication of tuberculosis of another form. No exception is the category of people who have already had this inflammatory process in any form. The disease is most often diagnosed in adults. In the main risk group, people aged 40-70 years.

If the treatment of the disease is not started in a timely manner, it can not be fatal.

Etiology

The etiology of this disease is well studied. The most frequently provoking factors for the development of the pathological process are the following:


  • Tuberculosis of any localization
  • Weakened immune system
  • severe infectious diseases
  • intoxication of the body
  • open brain injuries.

Due to certain etiological factors in the body gets acid-resistant bacterium Mycobakterium. This is the prerequisite for the development of tuberculous meningitis. But, it should be noted that the development of an inflammatory disease is more likely if a person’s immune system is severely weakened.

Pathogenesis

Due to certain etiological factors, the provoking bacterium penetrates into the body by hematogenous way (with blood). After that, the infectious organism settles on the soft shell of the brain, where it begins to multiply. At this stage, the human body is trying to develop protection. A certain capsule forms, which temporarily localizes the infection. As the infection spreads, the capsule breaks, and infectious organisms enter the cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, tuberculous meningitis develops.

General Symptoms

In the initial stages, tubercular meningitis may not be felt at all, as the pathological process develops slowly. As this complication of tuberculosis develops, the symptoms become more pronounced.

In an infected person, the following symptoms can occur:


  1. apathy;
  2. drowsiness;
  3. weakness and malaise
  4. elevated body temperature;
  5. frequent headaches;
  6. changing the tone in the neck muscles, as well as the occiput
  7. nausea, occasionally vomiting.

In more severe cases, the patient may experience partial paralysis, which is associated with abnormalities in the work of the nervous system and brain.

In addition to the above symptoms, some patients can be diagnosed with cardiac rhythm disturbances — arrhythmia or tachycardia.

Stages of development of the disease

In official medicine, it is customary to distinguish such stages of development of tuberculous meningitis:


  • prodromal (worsens health, headaches appear);
  • arousal (symptoms of muscle rigidity, intense headaches, muscle pain, vomiting, psychological disorders also begin)
  • oppression (possible paralysis, coma)

Detection of an ailment at an early stage of development practically excludes the risk of serious complications, but under condition of correct treatment. Therefore, the first symptoms should immediately contact a doctor.

Diagnostics

At the first signs, you should immediately consult a therapist. After a thorough personal examination and clarification of anamnesis, a comprehensive diagnosis should be carried out.

Laboratory tests consist of only a general analysis of blood and urine. If necessary, a biochemical blood test can be prescribed.

As for instrumental analysis, the following research methods are used:


  1. Fluorography;
  2. Tuberculosis test (Mantoux)
  3. puncture of cerebrospinal fluid
  4. MRI
  5. CT.

Based on the results, the doctor can make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment.





Treatment

Treatment of tuberculous meningitis is carried out only permanently. At the initial stages of tuberculous meningitis, patients may be prescribed such drugs:


  • isoniazid;
  • rifampicin;
  • pyrazinamide
  • streptomycin.

Only the attending physician determines the dosage and frequency of admission. On average, the duration of therapy lasts about 6-12 months. But, the term of treatment can vary depending on the general condition of the patient and the form of the development of the disease.

In addition to special-purpose drugs, the patient is prescribed medicines to strengthen the immune system. Also, for the period of treatment of tuberculous meningitis, the patient should fully and timely eat.

It should be noted that tuberculous meningitis is a kind of last stage of development of this pathological process. Therefore, all infectious and inflammatory ailments must be treated to the end, so as not to cause such complications.

Treatment with folk remedies

Traditional medicine offers many tools for the treatment of tuberculous meningitis. But, to accept any of them it is possible only under the prescription of the attending physician.

The folk technique of treatment implies the acceptance of phytoproducts from such herbs:


  1. Medinitsa
  2. infusion of althea;
  3. root of eleven;

Of the above herbs can be cooked as a decoction, and tinctures. But, they should be applied on the advice of a doctor. Self-medication is not allowed.

Prevention

Despite the fact that tuberculous meningitis is a dangerous disease, it can be prevented if simple preventive measures are put into practice.

For children, vaccination is an effective measure for the prevention of an illness. Do this vaccination should be at 7 and 14 years.

In addition, it is necessary to apply such rules in practice:


  • Regular room ventilation and wet cleaning
  • compliance with personal hygiene rules
  • regular examination by the therapist
  • passing the fluorography.

Such preventive measures allow, if not completely avoid this disease, then significantly reduce the risk of its formation. Any disease is much easier to prevent than to treat it later.

Do self-medication, with such a diagnosis, strictly contraindicated.