Tubootitis (Eustachiitis): Symptoms and Treatment
Tubootitis (also called eustachitis) is an inflammatory process of acute or chronic type, localized in the auditory (Eustachian) tube. The course of this disease is characterized by a violation of the ventilation process in the middle ear, and this, in turn, leads to a rapid drop in hearing.
Eustachiosis is often considered as the first stage of such a disease as catarrhal otitis. Given the inextricable relationship of the eustachyte and the pathology that forms in the tympanum, the terms that combine these two diseases are used: tubo-otitis, the symptoms of which are pronounced in their own manifestations, or salpingoitis.
General description of the disease
Tubootitis is the consequence of the transition to the mucosa of the auditory tube of inflammatory processes that originated in the pharynx or nose area as a result of chronic or acute rhinitis, angina or pharyngitis. The disease can occur in one of two forms, that is, be acute or chronic. Acute or chronic recurrent eustachitis often leads to the appearance of otitis media. The formation of an obstruction of the auditory tube may be accompanied, for example, by the closure of the nasopharyngeal cavity, which provokes diseases such as adenoids, hypertrophy of the nasal (lower) shell, and also choanal polyps.
Causes of the disease, complications
As we have already noted, eustachiitis, first of all, is considered as the first stage of development of catarrhal otitis, in addition, it can also cause the formation of frequent middle otitis of purulent type, the development of otitis adhesive and, as a result, leads to hearing loss. Tubo-otitis occurs as a result of chronic diseases, and because of anatomical disorders that are relevant for ENT organs. Among them: curvature of the nasal septum, rhinitis, sinusitis, rhinopharyngitis, adenoids, polyps, sinusitis, etc.
As for the causative agents of the disease, they are staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, and other microorganisms. In addition to infections that cause the emergence of infectious tubotitis, there is also not an allergic reaction, which, accordingly, causes allergic eustachitis.
The resulting inflammatory process leads to edema and a characteristic thickening that forms along the mucous surfaces. This leads to a violation of the overall patency of the Eustachian tube, thereby worsening ventilation. Due to a decrease in pressure in the auditory tube, the tympanic membrane falls, and then it retracts into the tympanic cavity. Thus, there is an autophony, a stuffy ear. In parallel with this, there is a development of stenosis in the area of the auditory tube, its walls stick together, which is accompanied by atrophic and sclerotic changes in the tympanum and the membrane. If you ignore the need for adequate treatment, tubo-otitis (eustachiitis) provokes a stable hearing loss or complete deafness.
Acute tubo-otitis: symptoms
The acute form predominantly occurs when the disease is influenza, or with seasonal catarrh, occurring in the upper respiratory tract. The main symptoms of tubotitis are manifested in the following states:
- Ear / ear stuffiness
- Resonance in the ear of your own voice (autophony), noises in the ear / ears
- Feeling of heaviness in the appropriate area of the head
- A feeling in the ear of an iridescent liquid that occurs when the head is tilted or turned.
Acute tubo-otitis is characterized by a stable state of health, the temperature is within the normal range, there are no manifestations in the form of an increased pain syndrome. The acute form of the disease, usually occurs due to the effects of infection, which is accompanied by a general decrease in immunity in the upper respiratory tract. In the absence of treatment, eustachiitis can pass into a chronic form, which is harder to treat and leads to hearing loss. In general, this disease with correct treatment is removable in a few days.
Chronic tubo-otitis: symptoms
Chronic tubo-otitis is a sclerotic and atrophic change that occurs in the mucosa of the tympanic membrane and cavity, and the membrane becomes cloudy in the case of this diagnosis. Chronic tubo-otitis is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Deformation of the eardrum
- Retraction of the eardrum
- Constriction of the Eustachian tube
- Redness in the area of limited areas;
- Persistence of auditory impairment
To diagnose such manifestations, as can be seen, it is possible when examined by a specialist. This form of the disease is characterized by a decrease in the lumen arising within the size of the auditory tube, and this already provokes changes in the membrane itself and its subsequent retraction. The permeability characteristic of the Eustachian tube, in this case, is violated, its walls are subjected to substantial adhesion. The resulting symptoms are permanent.
Tubootitis in children: symptoms
In children, the auditory meatus is somewhat shorter in size and at the same time more direct, if compared with an adult ear canal, which, accordingly, determines the greater predisposition of children to ear diseases and tubo-otitis in particular. Symptoms that occur in children have the same specific characteristics as adults:
- Noises in the ear / ears
- Poor hearing with an inflamed ear
- The stuffiness of the ears
- Temporal normalization of hearing when sneezing, coughing, or yawning
As for the temperature, it, like in adults, is within the normal range, there is no pain, which complicates the independent diagnosis of the disease and requires an appeal to a specialist.
Under the treatment of this disease, above all, is meant thorough disinfection of the mucosa of the middle ear, after which the actions are directed at eliminating the painful manifestations. In addition, adverse factors affecting the condition to which the ear of the auditory tube is exposed during inflammation should also be eliminated.
To reduce the swelling of the mucous in the area under consideration, drops are prescribed in the nose of the vasoconstrictive action, and puffiness is also reduced with the use of antihistamine medications. To avoid casting mucus that has been infected, patients are warned against too vigorous blows.
An effective solution is blowing (catheterization) of the auditory tube. The complex of measures of a curative nature also includes various types of physiotherapeutic procedures (UHF, UFO, pneumomassage, laser therapy).
To diagnose eustachyte (tubootitis) and determine the appropriate treatment, you should contact LOR.