Tumor of the brain: symptoms and treatment
Tumor of the brain is a disease characterized by a cancerous lesion of the meninges, nerve endings, and the skull. This type of disease is very dangerous, because if you start it and do not perform an operation on time, everything will be fatal.
Factors affecting the formation of an illness
Causes of a brain tumor can be very different. As a rule, a high incidence rate is observed in those people whose organism was exposed to radiation. Earlier, children who had dermatomycosis of the scalp, caused by a fungal infection, were prescribed radiation therapy. The result of this treatment was an increased risk of tumor formation.
To date, the causes of the pathology are associated with the irradiation of the head to eliminate other types of neoplasm. Also, the reasons for the formation of the disease are reduced to the negative effect of vinyl chloride. It is a colorless gas that is actively used in the production of plastic products. Well, the most common causes of brain tumors are the effect of electromagnetic waves emanating from mobile devices.
What are the signs of the disease?
The first symptoms of a brain tumor are determined by taking into account the area that is affected and the cause that caused the development of the disease. Still can be observed so-called cerebral signs of the disease. They include the following manifestations:
- Pain in the head area is the very first signal. Most often they begin to harass a person in the morning. They have a bursting character, and their amplification is observed when the position of the head changes, the tension of the abdominal press. Later, the pain becomes permanent.
- Feeling of nausea and vomiting are symptoms of a brain tumor, often accompanied by a headache.
- Changes in the mental background that most often affect elderly patients. These include: a violation of consciousness, poor attention, a difficult perception of ongoing events. If there is a rise in intracranial pressure, then this condition can provoke someone.
- Local signs of a brain tumor are disorders of the motor function, which are characterized by paralysis of one part of the body, seizures, hearing and vision impairment.
If a patient has been diagnosed with a benign tumor in the brain, it does not affect other organs and does not go beyond the boundaries of the brain tissue. It develops very slowly, and the symptoms in a benign brain tumor depend on the area where the tumor is concentrated. Classification of operable tumors involves the following types:
- Gliomas of the 1st stage are neoplasms, the formation of which occurs from the glial cells of the brain. They include other types of tumors, such as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas and mixed gliomas.
- Auditory nerve nerves are neoplasms that include the classification of operable tumors that damage the auditory nerve
- Hemangioblastomas are benign brain tumors that are localized in the blood vessels of the damaged brain
An inoperable brain tumor is a pathological process that has been formed in the brain tissues. For this kind of neoplasm, there is a rapid increase in size, as well as ingrowth into neighboring tissues with complete destruction.
The formation of the neoplasm results from immature brain cells, as well as from cells that have passed to the brain from other organs.
Malignant tumor is the metastasis of cancerous growths. They can affect other parts of the body: mammary glands, lungs, blood. Metastases can be concentrated either in one part of the brain or completely in everything. Classification of inoperable neoplasms presupposes the presence of primary or secondary neoplasm. The formation of primary occurs from brain cells. Most often a person is affected by a glioma tumor — a multiform glioblastoma. Still diagnosed astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma, for which a rapid increase in size is characteristic.
This glial tumor, the emergence of which contributed to cells that perform a supporting function. This type of disease is considered the most common. It can be diagnosed in people of any age, but most often it affects middle-aged men. Its concentration occurs in adults in the large hemisphere, in children, damage is applied to the optic nerve. It can also affect the brain stem and the cerebellum.
In children and young people, the development of an astrocytoma occurs at the base of the brain. Often the cyst develops inside the tumor.
According to the site of concentration, glioblastoma can be primary or secondary. According to the classification, the primary is located directly in the brain, and the secondary have metastases that grow into the cranial cavity.
Another classification of the brain tumor implies neoplasms according to the type of tissue to which they have inflicted damage. Very rarely glioblastoma is multiple and resets its metastases to other organs. A characteristic feature of these tumors is their rapid growth, as a result of which they affect the tissues surrounding them. Very often, such symptoms occur with a benign brain tumor. Neoplasm is growing, although very slowly. There are cases when such germination causes the expansion of the neoplasm boundaries, so the brain is under strong pressure from surrounding tissues.
Classification of the disease provides a distinction between the symptoms of a brain tumor depending on the degree of development:
- The first degree — the growth of the tumor is slow, there are cells that are very similar in structure to normal. It is extremely rare to spread to neighboring tissues.
- The second — the growth of the neoplasm is slow, but it is possible that the tissues located close to them are not destroyed. There are cases when neoplasms become higher class.
- Third degree — tumor growth is rapid, so this condition causes damage to neighboring tissues. Affected cells differ from normal cells.
- The fourth — glioblastoma develops rapidly, hitting the creation of tissue with high speed.
Glioblastoma is a pathological process that causes various complications, the severity of which is determined by taking into account the site of the lesion. Most often in an adult and children there are such consequences:
- Weakness. Glyoblastoma can cause destruction of any part of the brain. Often it affects the part of the brain that is responsible for the strength or motor function of the arm, leg. A person begins to feel weakness throughout the body. Such a condition very often resembles the weakness caused by a stroke.
- Loss of visual acuity. Glioblastomas in adults and children can cause damage to the optic nerves or that part of the brain that is responsible for visualizing the data. What in this case there can be problems with vision? Most often this is a vision of a doubled number of objects.
- Pain in the head. Glyoblastoma causes a rise in pressure in the brain, which results in a headache. Pain syndrome can be strong and not subsiding. Painful sensations in the head are a symptom of the tumor itself or the result of fluid concentration in the brain.
- Glyoblastoma in children and adults can cause changes in human behavior.
- Hearing loss. The glioblastoma has a negative effect on the auditory nerves. The result of this process is the loss of hearing from the side with which the brain is affected.
- Convulsions. This complication of the brain tumor is due to brain irritation.
- Brain coma is the final complication of the disease, the outcome of which is death.
Determine such a disease as a tumor in the brain, the following methods of examination will help:
- The patient’s question about when the first manifestations of the disease appeared, whether there is a family predisposition to the disease, whether professional activity involves contact with chemicals.
- A neurological examination involves detecting the symptoms of neurological disorders. As a result, it is possible to determine weakness in the limbs, changes in the psyche, poor speech.
- Inspection of the fundus allows to detect signs of increased intracranial pressure.
- MRI and CT of the head — diagnostic methods, through which it is possible to evaluate the structure of the brain and determine the glioblastoma by studying its structure, size and concentration.
Treatment of a brain tumor involves a number of measures that can be prescribed by a doctor, taking into account the type, size and area of neoplasm concentrating. In addition, the choice of the method of therapy affects the health and opinion of the patient. Therefore, the doctor should choose the treatment of a brain tumor that would coincide with the situation and preferences of his ward.
When the glioblastoma in adults and children is concentrated in a place where it can be obtained with the help of surgical instruments, the doctor prescribes an operation. During such therapy, the surgeon will try to remove the tumor completely. There are cases when the glioblastoma is small enough and can be easily removed. Then the operation for its separation is considered justified. But it happens that the tumor is concentrated in sensitive areas of the brain, so performing a surgical intervention becomes dangerous. If you remove even a part of the lesion, you can only weaken the symptoms of the disease.
Treatment of a brain tumor surgically gives a certain risk, which consists in the development of infection.
Such treatment is suitable for children and adults. It is based on the action of high energy particle beams. An example is X-rays to remove tumor cells. Radiation therapy is carried out with the help of special equipment located outside the patient’s body. Rarely close-focus radiation therapy is rarely used. The radiation resource is located in the body near the tumor. Effects of rays on all parts of the brain doctor can appoint after surgery. Its goal is to destroy all the cells of the tumor that could not be removed.
Irradiation of the entire brain is advisable to use in the case when a number of malignant tumors are treated at once. Such activities are often used in cases where cancer metastases have gone to the brain.
From radiation therapy, patients may experience side effects such as weakness, headache, nausea, irritation of the skin. Their degree determines the type and dosage of irradiation.
This method of treatment in children and adults is based on the use of a drug that kills tumor cells. Reception of these medicines can be carried out orally or intravenously. Another drug can enter the body by injecting it into the spine.
Another type of chemotherapy is used for children and adults, in which the medication is administered during surgery. During the removal of the tumor or part of the tumor, the doctor has one or more capsules in the form of a disc in the free space left after the glioblastoma. The medicine, in turn, begins to spread slowly throughout the body.
Chemotherapy also has its side effects. These include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, headache. The degree of their severity depends on the type and dosage of the drug involved.
Rehabilitation is a necessary set of measures for recovery, because a brain tumor can hit that area where important centers for controlling speech, vision, motor skills, and hearing are concentrated. There are cases when the brain itself copes with this problem and after the operation all the processes are restored. But this requires patience and time.
When cognitive functions are restored, it is possible to restore lost cognitive abilities. Physiotherapy is effective in the regeneration of lost motor function and muscle strength. Restoration of working capacity is a complex of measures, thanks to which the patient can return to work after all procedures.
Tumor of the brain is a very dangerous disease, which entails a number of negative consequences. Cure ailment is possible, but therapy must be carried out at the initial stage of its development, then it will be possible to remove the tumor cells and restore all the patient’s skills.