Urolithiasis (urolithiasis): symptoms and treatment

Urolithiasis (urolithiasis) is a pathological process that leads to the formation of stones in the bladder, ureter, or kidneys. The disease is diagnosed in 3% of the total population. In young people, stones are found most often in the kidney and ureter. In older people, pathology forms in the area of ​​the bladder. Restrictions, as to age and sex, this ailment does not have.



Etiology

Urolithiasis develops, most often, because of a metabolic disorder. But here it is necessary to take into account the fact that urolithiasis will not develop if there are no predisposing factors for this. The causes of urolithiasis are as follows:


  • kidney and urinary system ailments
  • metabolic disorders and diseases associated with it
  • pathological processes of bone tissue
  • dehydration
  • chronic gastrointestinal ailments
  • malnutrition, excessive consumption of unhealthy food — spicy, salty, sour, fast food
  • acute shortage of vitamins and minerals

It should also be noted and the fact that urolithiasis can develop due to the constant use of hard water. But this etiological factor is observed only with weakened immunity and the presence of background diseases.

Pathogenesis

Violation of the normal metabolism in the human body leads to the fact that the urinogenital system accumulates insoluble salts. This leads to the formation of stones — phosphates or urates. Painful sensations appear when the stone begins to expand and does not pass smoothly through the ureter.

General Symptoms

Like most diseases, at the initial stage, symptoms of urolithiasis may be absent.

With the development of the pathological process, there may be such signs of urolithiasis:


  1. unstable blood pressure;
  2. elevated body temperature, sometimes up to 40 degrees;
  3. symptoms of renal colic
  4. frequent urge to urinate, which does not bring relief;
  5. pain in the lumbar region, sometimes on both sides
  6. blood in the urine
  7. pain when urinating

It should be noted that in women the signs of urolithiasis are observed much more often than in men. Especially during pregnancy.

In some cases, pain is spread to the genitals. In men, the pain can be given to the inner side of the thigh, and in women to the bladder. In view of the fact that during pregnancy frequent urge to urinate is a normal phenomenon, many simply do not pay attention to it.

Also, the clinical picture of urolithiasis may vary depending on the position and size of the stone itself. Urolithiasis in men is diagnosed most often after 40 years.

Views

According to the ICD (International Classification of Diseases), these types of stones are distinguished with urolithiasis:


  • oxalate — easily detected on radiography, most common
  • uralat — is formed from uric acid and unprocessed salts
  • phosphate — is formed as a consequence of violations of phosphate-calcium metabolism
  • Cystine
  • Mixed.

The cystine type of stone is often due to a hereditary predisposition. In women during pregnancy, this type of stone is almost never diagnosed.

General classification

According to the ICD 10, a classification of urolithiasis is adopted:


  1. localization (kidney, bladder, ureter);
  2. by type of stones
  3. by the nature of the development of the disease (primary or repeated development of the disease).

Urolithiasis during pregnancy

During pregnancy, urolithiasis is diagnosed much less often than in women who are not in a position. If the disease occurs without significant complications, then during pregnancy and the health of the baby it does not affect. Otherwise, miscarriage is possible.




As a rule, this disease is not regarded as a contraindication to conceiving and bearing a child. Hospitalization of a pregnant woman is carried out only in such cases:


  • symptom of renal colic
  • development of infection in the presence of urolithiasis
  • gestosis;
  • pyelonephritis.

As for the clinical picture, it becomes more pronounced in pregnancy:


  1. renal colic
  2. Cystitis
  3. unstable body temperature, high blood pressure;
  4. frequent urination
  5. the presence of blood in the urine

It is noteworthy that during pregnancy, urolithiasis can not be as painful as in women who are not in a position.

In 80% of cases of urolithiasis in pregnant women against the background of this disease develops pyelonephritis. Such a pathological process can occur both in the first and second trimester. In this case, hospitalization is simply necessary.

With regard to treatment, then during pregnancy the emphasis is on a diet rich in minerals, with abundant consumption of purified water. The intake of medications is reduced to a minimum. It is also very important to eat properly, with all the necessary vitamins for the mother and baby. Treatment of urolithiasis during pregnancy should be strictly under the supervision of a doctor.

Urolithiasis in children

Urolithiasis in children is diagnosed most often at the age of 8-10 years. In childhood, diseases are more likely to affect boys. The clinical picture in preschool children is as follows:


  • bloating
  • nausea, refusal of food
  • moody state, crying of the child for no apparent reason;
  • elevated body temperature;
  • unstable chair
  • aching back pain.

With such symptoms, the child should be immediately shown to the doctor, and not self-medicated.

Urolithiasis in children is treated with special medications and proper nutrition.

Diagnostics

With the above symptoms, you should consult a nephrologist or urologist. If the clinical picture is observed in children, you should first visit a pediatrician.

After examination and clarification of anamnesis, instrumental and laboratory diagnostics are performed. As for laboratory methods of research, only general urinalysis is used.

Mandatory diagnosis of urolithiasis includes instrumental techniques:


  1. CT of the abdominal cavity;
  2. MRI
  3. X-ray of the abdominal organs.

If on the basis of such diagnosis of urolithiasis it is impossible to establish precisely the presence of the disease, differential diagnostics is used. Only a doctor should prescribe a course of treatment of urolithiasis. It is unacceptable to engage in self-medication.

Treatment

Urolithiasis at the initial stage is easy to treat and does not cause complications. Hospitalization is required if infectious diseases develop on the background of the disease.

If the stones are small, then medication is performed with the mandatory appointment of a diet. Otherwise, the operative intervention is applicable. Drug therapy includes the use of such medications:


  • pain relievers
  • Anti-inflammatory;
  • to improve stone waste;
  • to improve metabolism.

Only the doctor prescribes the dosage and the scheme of taking medications. Unauthorized use of drugs for the treatment of urolithiasis can worsen the situation and lead to the development of an infectious disease.

Diet

In addition to taking medications, a patient with urolithiasis should adhere to the correct diet. The diet eliminates or minimizes the consumption of such products:


  1. food rich in oxalic acid
  2. Acute, sour, too salty
  3. coffee, chocolate
  4. meat and dishes from them (including broths)
  5. foods rich in vitamin C.

Instead, the food should contain such products:


  • potatoes;
  • Cereals;
  • dairy products
  • coarse grits
  • Fruits.

Particular attention is given to drinking. The daily rate of water consumption should not be less than 1.5 liters. As for mineral water, it should be without gas. It is desirable that the type of water (composition, quantity of consumption) prescribed by the doctor.

Instead of water, you can use phyto-products. But this should also be done according to the prescription of the doctor.

Operational treatment

If you can not get rid of the above methods, surgical intervention is used. Typically, these methods are used:


  1. shock wave therapy
  2. urethroscopy
  3. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy

It should be noted that at the initial stage of the progression of urolithiasis, abundant intake of mineral water and proper nutrition can avoid surgical intervention.

Treatment of urolithiasis with folk remedies is possible only according to the prescription of the doctor at an early stage of the development of the disease or as a preventive measure. It is best to use traditional recipes in tandem with taking medications and proper nutrition. Also, do not forget about the consumption of the optimal amount of mineral water.

Prevention

As with treatment, prevention is based on consumption of the optimal amount of purified water. A day should drink at least 1.5-2 liters of clean water. This is especially important for those who have already experienced this disease.

In addition, you need to follow these rules:


  • a healthy, healthy diet
  • moderate physical activity
  • timely and correct treatment of all diseases




If the symptoms of the ailment still make themselves felt, you should immediately seek medical help. Self-medication is fraught with serious complications.