Uterine bleeding: symptoms and treatment
Uterine bleeding is a discharge of blood from the uterus, which in almost all cases indicates the course of a pathological process in the female body. Representatives of the weaker sex should remember that the only normal case of expressing such a sign is menstruation.
To trigger the appearance of such a dangerous sign can a large number of etiological factors, ranging from a large number of diseases or pregnancy and ending with the violence or intake of oral contraceptives.
In addition to the allocation of large amounts of blood, there is an expression of other specific clinical manifestations, among them strong dizziness, weakness and pallor of the skin.
Diagnostics involves performing a number of laboratory and instrumental examinations, as well as conducting a detailed questioning of the patient. The tactics of therapy directly depends on the causes and intensity of expression of uterine hemorrhage.
Because the appearance of such a sign can cause a wide range of predisposing factors, they are usually divided into several large groups. The first of them identifies extragenital sources, that is, those that have nothing to do with the disruption of the functioning of the organs of the reproductive system:
- the course of infectious processes
- hematopoietic system ailments
- liver damage with cirrhosis
- diseases of the cardiovascular system — here you can include atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension
- disruption of the endocrine system.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DMC) — these are hemorrhages that have arisen for some reason, due to the female reproductive system. Among such predisposing factors are:
- malignant or benign neoplasms in the ovaries or uterus
- Spontaneous rupture of the cyst or ovary
- a wide range of uterine injuries;
- cervical disease
- damage to external female genital organs
- continued use of contraceptives
- Sexual violence.
Since dysfunctional uterine bleeding does not have age limitations, they often occur in women during the period of gestation. In this period of life, the source of such a sign may be:
- Pregnancy outside the womb
- any pathology of the fetal egg;
- the presence of scars on the uterus
- early placental abruption, its abnormal location or presentation
- rupture of the uterus immediately during the onset of the baby’s birth
- trauma to the birth canal
- the course of various processes that can lead to the destruction of uterine tissues
- the infringement or delay of a place that must retire after delivery
- generic activities that were performed with caesarean section
- uterine myoma or endometritis
- chorionepithelioma or trophoblastic disease.
In addition, the causes of uterine bleeding can be considered:
- lack of vitamins in the body
- prolonged influence of stressful situations or nerve strains
- climate change
- physical overwork
- work that involves contact with toxins or heavy metals.
In addition, DMC is divided into several types:
- juvenile uterine bleeding — appear in girls and girls between twelve and eighteen years old
- reproductive hemorrhage — observed in women of childbearing age — from eighteen to forty-five years old
- premenopausal bleeding — occurs in women during menopause
In addition, there are several types of dysfunctional uterine bleeding:
- Menorrhagia are excessive and prolonged menstruation, which lasts more than seven days, at which time the woman loses more than 80 milliliters of blood. The interval between such hemorrhages is from three weeks to thirty-five days;
- Metrorrhagia is an irregular spotting that occurs during the intermenstrual period and is of a non-intensive nature
- menometrorrhagia — bleeding is not regular, but they are quite long;
- Polymenorrhoea is a frequent menstruation whose interval is less than twenty-one days.
All of the above forms can be combined into abnormal uterine bleeding. Normal menstruation in women should last no more than five days, with the same interruptions, which should be twenty-eight days. In addition, they should not contain large or multiple blood clots.
Depending on the causes of uterine bleeding, a similar feature is divided into:
- dysfunctional uterine bleeding — is associated with abnormal ovarian function and the release of sex hormones
- organic bleeding associated with uterine pathologies
- iatrogenic hemorrhages — arise because of the adverse effects of drugs, both hormonal and non-hormonal.
With respect to pregnancy, this disorder is divided into:
- uterine hemorrhages during childbearing;
- Postpartum hemorrhages, which are divided into early and late postpartum period
This pathology has several specific clinical manifestations that can be divided into general and local.
Thus, the general symptoms of uterine bleeding include:
- weakness and decline in performance
- pale skin;
- fainting states
- Decrease in blood pressure.
Local signs of uterine bleeding:
- copious discharge of blood from the vagina
- the appearance of multiple blood clots during menstruation, which require frequent replacement of hygiene products, about once every two hours;
- the appearance of bloody discharge after sexual contact
- mismatch of hemorrhages with the period of menstruation
- the emergence of pain syndrome. However, it is worth considering that such a characteristic is not characteristic for dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
It is generally believed that when menopause occurs in the fairer sex there are no bloody discharge, but this is not so. In this period of life, women need to monitor their character and quantity. The following signs of uterine bleeding in menopause should cause anxiety and serve as a trigger for seeking qualified help:
- profuse hemorrhage, which hygiene can not cope with;
- the appearance of large amounts of bloody clots;
- the duration of hemorrhage is more than three days.
What to do with uterine bleeding, and how to diagnose it, the gynecologist knows. The establishment of a correct diagnosis often does not cause difficulties for an experienced clinician.
Diagnostic activities consist of several stages, the first of which includes:
- conducting a detailed questioning of the patient for the regularity, abundance and soreness of the menstrual cycle. In addition, the survey will help to identify the presence and intensity of concomitant symptoms;
- familiarize the physician with the history of the disease and the history of the patient’s life — to search for etiological factors
- gynecological examination.
Among the laboratory studies, it is worth highlighting the general analysis and biochemistry of blood. It is necessary to establish the level of hormones, determine oncomarkers and study coagulability. It may also require a laboratory study of a smear taken from the cervix.
The basis of diagnosis are instrumental surveys, which include the implementation of:
- pelvic ultrasound;
- examining the walls of the vagina;
- Diagnostic curettage
- Hysteroscopy — consists in examining the uterus using a special device
- MRI and CT.
First of all, it is necessary to take into account the fact that uterine bleeding can begin at any time, why it is necessary to know the rules of first aid, which consist of:
- taking a horizontal position, so that the legs are a few degrees higher than the rest of the body
- applying a cold compress or ice pack to the bottom of the abdomen
- ingesting large amounts of liquid
- taking haemostatic drugs with uterine bleeding
It is strictly forbidden to do syringing, take a hot bath or put heat on your stomach.
The choice of methods for stopping bleeding is based on the general condition of the patient and the degree of intensity of the underlying symptom.
Juvenile uterine bleeding is treated as follows:
- the use of haemostatic drugs and substances for uterine contraction
- the appointment of progesterone — with ineffectiveness of non-hormonal therapy
- Hysteroscopy with separate diagnostic curettage — used for copious hemorrhage
- conducting anemia therapy
Such activities will help get rid of the disease in five days.
In addition to the aforementioned means of treatment of uterine bleeding, the coping of reproductive hemorrhages additionally includes:
- eliminating background ailments
- elimination of intoxication
- bringing the nervous state back to normal.
Therapy for dysfunctional uterine bleeding in the climacteric period involves the challenge of menopause. In such cases, a positive result is achieved only by surgical methods.
The most effective medicines for such a disorder are:
- Dicinone — these tablets have a hemostatic, stimulating and angioprotective effect in uterine bleeding;
- «Traneksam» should be taken with uterine hemorrhage during hemorrhages caused by the period of childbearing;
- «Vikasol» with uterine bleeding normalizes blood clotting processes.
Besides this, there is another way how to stop uterine bleeding at home — recipes of traditional medicine that involve the use of:
- orange peel
- The Bird’s Highlander
- Shepherd’s bags
- the root of the ayr;
Ignoring a pronounced symptomatology or irrational application of ways to stop uterine bleeding with clots can cause the following complications:
- aggravation of the underlying disease;
- formation of the oncology process
- spontaneous termination of pregnancy or miscarriage;
- decreased quality of life or work capacity of the patient
In order to avoid the appearance of such a dangerous symptom, female representatives must:
- completely abandon the addictions;
- timely eliminate diseases that can lead to the appearance of such a sign
- Pre-plan pregnancy in advance
- take medicine only as directed by the clinician;
- to be attentive to menstruation and undergoing the slightest changes to undergo an examination with a gynecologist
- limit yourself to the impact of stress.
Timely recourse to qualified care is the guarantee of a favorable prognosis for such a disorder.