Vaginal labial papillomas
What are papillomas?
Papillomas and warts on the labia on the labia are small morphological skin-colored elements (nodes), virtually unnoticed on the mucous membranes. They can be single or can grow and develop into papillomatosis. Vaginal warts refer to the human papilloma virus which is the most widespread sexually transmitted pathology after herpes. There are over 100 types of HPV causing different pathologies in the human body.
All the types can be roughly divided into three groups:
- low risk of developing cancer;
- medium risk of developing cancer;
- high risk of developing cancer.
The signs of labial papilloma appear under the influence of certain factors. All the rest time a human is a carrier of infection.
Causes of papillomas growth
Predisposing factors for vaginal papillomas growth:
- Excessive loss of heat;
- Promiscuous sexual activity;
- Unprotected sex;
- Psychological tension;
- Hormonal imbalance;
- Infection of the urogenital system;
- Any chronic pathologies;
- Hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis (vitamins A, C, B12 and folic acid are of particular importance);
- Pregnancy (due to transformations in the body of a pregnant woman);
- Bad habits (especially, smoking).
The main transmission route of the vaginal warts is through sexual contact. A fetus can get infected during pregnancy and delivery. This pathology is a transfusion-transmitted infection.
Classification of clinical manifestations of papillomas:
- Symptom-free disease;
- papillomas on labia majora, labia minora, in the vagina and on the uterine neck (the mucous membranes are affected);
- growth in the perianal region, on the thighs and in the pelvic area (the skin is affected);
- erosion, dysplasia and the signs of uterine cancer.
Symptoms of papillomas on labia majora and labia minora:
- redness and swelling in the affected area (signs of inflammation);
- minor bleeding and fissures;
- small pink painless eruptions (less than 1 cm);
- mild itching and burning in the affected area;
- rarely discomfort when wearing underwear;
- discomfort during sex and after it.
Papilloma on labia majora can remain symptomless for a long time and only during a routine medical examination it can be detected.
Papillomas themselves are not dangerous, however if left untreated they can develop into cancerous cells, become inflamed, shrink and drop off, propagate very rapidly and cause discomfort.
This condition requires a complex medical examination which includes not only detection of the papilloma on labia majora but also virus detection and diagnostics of comorbidity.
Methods of diagnostics:
- Interview with a patient. Unprotected sex plays an important role in the development of this pathology, typical symptoms of papillomatosis and decreased immunity.
- Epithelial scrape from the affected area to detect human papilloma virus in the samples. The method of polymerase chain reaction is used. This method allows identifying the amount of the infectious agent in the sample.
- Enzyme immunoassay (EIA). It defines the titer of antibodies to the HPV antigenes. A blood sample should be taken for this test.
- Colposcopic examination of the uterine neck to visually detect the growth;
- Cytologic and histologic methods. They are used to detect HPV cellular inclusions;
- Smear test to detect the signs of malignant transformations;
- Polymerase chain reaction for additional diagnostics of comorbidity;
- Inoculation of medium to identify excessive propagation of conditionally pathogenic microflora.
It is very important to detect HPV in pregnant women because if a fetus becomes infected, it will lead to serious consequences.
If a woman is diagnosed with HPV, her partner should also undergo medical examination to prevent further spread of infection and regular relapses in the couple.
How to get rid of labial papillomas?
Topical treatment is aimed at removing the growth. Here are the methods for treating vaginal papillomas:
- Laser removal. The advantages of the method are minimal affection of the surrounding tissues, absence of scars and simple use. However, the healing process of the wounds will last over a month.
- Cryodestruction. This method is based on using liquid nitrogen or nitrous oxide. The period of recovery lasts for two weeks but a hardly noticed scar will be left. Relapses are possible.
- The use of Surgitron. This is a device for performing radio wave surgery. The recovery period is the same as with cryodestruction.
- Electrocoagulation is the oldest and a simple method for removing papillomas. The main disadvantage is that it affects healthy tissues. However, relapses rarely occur.
- Surgical interference is indicated when papillomas exhibit significant growth.
- Chelidonium Super. It is not indicated for treating labial papillomas as it causes great pain. It is used to remove the growth on the skin;
- Solcoderm. It is a solution for treating affected skin surface. This is a course therapy with a month break;
- Cytotoxic drugs. These drugs inhibit DNA synthesis of human papilloma virus relieving clinical presentation. It is not prescribed for growth in the vagina and contraindicated for pregnant women;
- Fluorouracil. It is used for treating the disease when other methods turn out to be ineffective or in case with frequent relapses. It is contraindicated for pregnant women.
Systemic treatment is oriented at the restoration of the immune system, consequently, immunomodulators are often prescribed. It is not recommended to use these drugs in pregnancy as they have a negative effect on a fetus.
It is not possible to completely get rid of human papilloma virus. The therapy is aimed at relieving the symptoms of the pathology.
Treatment of papillomatosis in pregnant women and children
If a fetus is infected during pregnancy its is very dangerous as papillomas spread to the air passages of a baby and this leads to respiratory distortion which may remain for the whole life. That is why treatment of a pregnant woman should be immediate and start as early as possible.
The drugs having serious teratogenic effect on a fetus are contraindicated as well as surgeries affecting the vagina and the uterus.
The optimal choice is Solcoderm or destructive therapy with Surgitron. These methods of treatment can be used in pregnant women and children.